Teacher's Guide: Hints for the Active Learning Questions
1. Answers will vary.
2. Possible alternative actions include not backing France's effort to retake Vietnam in 1945, which might have prevented the later U.S. military involvement in the region; President Johnson making public his plans in 1964 to escalate U.S. involvement in the war, which might have led to a national debate on the war and a national consensus for or against U.S. involvement; and not signing the 1973 cease-fire, which might have prevented the final collapse of South Vietnam.
3. Abbreviations will vary.
1. In the 1965 speech, Johnson used the offer of large-scale economic assistance to encourage North Vietnam to seek an end to the war. In the 1968 speech, Johnson warned that spending on the war had created a budget deficit and threatened the nation's economic prosperity.
1. Locations A-I should match their locations on the reference map.
1. (a) Possibilities include "all necessary measures," "any armed attack," "to prevent further aggression," "all necessary steps," "assist any member," "shall expire when the President shall determine." (b) It essentially gave the President blanket authority to conduct military operations in Southeast Asia.
2. (a) They formed a national organization to obtain publicity on the plight of the POWs and pressure the administration to change its "keep quiet" policy regarding mistreatment of the POWs. (b) Following international condemnation of the Hanoi March, the North Vietnamese government did not carry out threatened war crimes trials against American POWs. (c) The failed U.S. attempt to rescue POWs near Hanoi in 1970 led North Vietnam to consolidate the prisoners, thus ending their isolation from one another.