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Forty Acres and a Mule
Plantations in Ruins
Black Legislators
Northerners in the South
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White Men Unite
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White Men Unite: Further Reading

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Further Reading

Find resources related to Southern whites' attitudes toward emancipation on this page, or access a general bibliography for Reconstruction in the State by State section of this site.

Web sites

American Time Capsule: Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera
The Library of Congress's American Memory Web site includes this published letter to a U.S. Circuit Court judge dated September 1871. Signed by several men including Thomas Bragg, who was a North Carolina governor and U.S. senator before the Civil War and the attorney general of the Confederate States of America, the letter denounces the "secret, unlawful organization" of the Klan and calls for public vigilance against the Klan's "violations of law and public justice."

My Life and Travels
Part of the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill's Documenting the American South archive, former slave Levi Branham's memoir was published in 1929. He includes a chapter describing Klan abuses in Georgia in 1894.

America's Reconstruction: Violence
The Digital History Web site, a collaboration between the University of Houston, the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, and other institutions, presents an online version of Eric Foner and Olivia Mahoney's exhibit on Reconstruction. This section describes white Southern resistance to black freedom.


Carter, Dan T. When the War Was Over: The Failure of Self-Reconstruction in the South, 1865-1867. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1985.

Dixon Jr., Thomas. The Clansman: An Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1905.

Hurst, Jack. Nathan Bedford Forrest: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.

Kantrowitz, Stephen. Ben Tillman and the Reconstruction of White Supremacy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Leland, John A. A Voice from South Carolina: Journal of a Reputed Ku-Klux. Charleston: Walker, Evans & Cogswel, 1879.

Mosby, John Russell. The Memoirs of Colonel John S. Mosby. Edited by Charles Wells. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1959.

Ramage, James A. The Gray Ghost. Lexington, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 1999.

Williams, Lou Falkner. The Great South Carolina Ku Klux Trials, 1871-1872. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1996.

page created on 12.19.03
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Reconstruction: The Second Civil War
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