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About the Film

Forty Acres and a Mule
Plantations in Ruins
Black Legislators
Northerners in the South
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Slave to Sharecropper
The Negro Question
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The Negro Question: Further Reading

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Further Reading

Find resources related to Thomas Nast and Northern attitudes after the war on this page, or access a general bibliography for Reconstruction in the State by State section of this site.

Web sites

Letter from Francis Blackburn to Abraham Lincoln, November 24, 1860
This letter from the Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress' American Memory site, sent from Philadelphia Republican Francis Blackburn to president-elect Abraham Lincoln, illustrates Northern disinterest in abolition and the plight of slaves before the Civil War.

America's Reconstruction: The North's Retreat
The Digital History Web site, a collaboration between the University of Houston, the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, and other institutions, presents an online version of Eric Foner and Olivia Mahoney's exhibit on Reconstruction. This section describes the North's waning commitment to Reconstruction and principles of black civil rights after 1870.

1896: Racial Prejudice
This Vassar College Web site explores the issues of the 19th century's last presidential campaign, including the Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision that made segregation the law of the land. This page reveals common white prejudices and black responses from Booker T. Washington and Ida Wells.

Toward Racial Equality: Harper's Weekly Reports on Black America, 1857-1874
This Web site, created from primary source materials originally published in Harper's Weekly during and after the Civil War, provides insight into the debates of the era over black suffrage, civil rights, and Southern violence.

American Experience: The Time of the Lincolns Political Cartoon Gallery
Browse a gallery of cartoons featuring President Lincoln and the issues of civil war.

American Experience: Ulysses S. Grant Political Cartoon Gallery
This cartoon gallery includes some Thomas Nast drawings and addresses events President Grant experienced, including the Civil War and Reconstruction.


Keller,Morton. The Art and Politics of Thomas Nast. New York, Oxford University Press, 1968.

Nast, Thomas. Cartoons and Illustrations. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1974.

Paine, Albert Bigelow. Thomas Nast, His Period and His Pictures. 1904. Reprint. Princeton: Pyne Press, 1980.

page created on 12.19.03
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Reconstruction: The Second Civil War
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Reconstruction: The Second Civil War American Experience

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