Visit Your Local PBS Station PBS Home PBS Home Programs A-Z TV Schedules Watch Video Donate Shop PBS Search PBS
Montage of images and link description. Meltdown at Three Mile Island Imagemap: linked to kids and home
The Film and More
Imagemap(text links below) of menu items
The American Experience
The Film & More

Reference


Interview Transcripts | Bibliography


Mike Gray on: His First Reaction
Mike Gray Q: Do you remember what your first reactions were when you heard something was amiss?

MG: Yes. I was living on Gower Street in Hollywood at that time. I had written the original screenplay for "The China Syndrome." The movie had come out 12 days earlier. It was released on March the 16th, 1979, and at that moment it was playing in 800 theaters which, in 1979, was a maximum release. And the reason was, of course, it was a Jane Fonda-Jack Lemmon-Michael Douglas picture. And at that point Jane Fonda was at the apex of a brilliant career. You had to wait in line for one full show in order to get in to see that movie on that previous Tuesday morning. But when the accident occurred, I got a phone call from Michael Douglas. I was working and I didn't have the radio on. The phone rings and Michael Douglas says, "Have you heard about the accident at Three Mile Island?" "What's happened?" He describes it briefly. Immediately, I can tell, from what little he knows, that this is something that's off the scale of our previous experience. And Douglas said, "Look, whatever you do, don't answer any questions to the press. Our position is no comment. If we say anything about this, everybody's going to assume we're trying to take advantage of a disaster in order to sell this movie. And we don't want to be put in that position." I said, "I quite agree." So everyone involved with the picture agreed at that time our position is, whenever we were asked, "No comment." And I immediately got several phone calls from reporters. "No comment." The next call I got was from Yan Weiner at Rolling Stone Magazine. He's a friend of Michael Douglas' and he asked if I would go to Three Mile Island to cover the accident. And at that point I had just spent five years researching and writing this screenplay for this movie, and I was one of the handful of people in the country who actually had a clear idea of what might be happening at Three Mile Island. And Harrisburg, I can promise you, was the absolute last place on the planet I wanted to be that day. But, you know, I'm always up for a story. So, I went to the LAX and, unfortunately, United Airlines was in the middle of an airlines strike on that day and air traffic was screwed up all over the country. I went to the TWA desk and I said, "Listen, my name is Mike Gray. I wrote the screenplay for 'China Syndrome' and I need to get to Harrisburg." And the guy said, "Just a minute," and he went back and got the supervisor. The supervisor came out and said, "Mr. Gray, you're on the next flight. We can't get you to Harrisburg. The airport at Harrisburg has been officially closed as of three hours ago, but we've got [unintelligible] into Pittsburgh. Here's your ticket. Thank you very much." So that was one time when being a Hollywood screenwriter actually paid off. And I got the flight into Harrisburg.

I called a friend of mine, P. Michael O'Sullivan, a still photographer, a great ex-"Life Magazine" photographer. I said, "Go to Harrisburg. Find the bar that's the closest to the plant and I'll meet you there in the time that it takes me to reach Three Mile Island." So he took off from Chicago, I took off from LA. I landed in Pittsburgh and I rented a car in Pittsburgh and headed east on the Pennsylvania Turnpike. That night I was the only car eastbound on the Pennsylvania Turnpike. There was lots of westbound traffic, but nobody headed east. And, unfortunately, you know there are those tunnels. Every time I'd be listening to the radio and they'd say, "And now, this word just in from Harrisburg," poom, and I'd go into a tunnel then. So I had no idea what the actual situation was, but I knew that it was deteriorating.

Q: What's going through your head as you're driving there?

MG: As I approached Harrisburg that night, unlike a lot of people who really had no idea what was going on there, I had a real serious suspicion that this was a major, major event. Because of the way that the press comments from the people in the plant had been phrased. In fact, several people had noted already in newscasts that there was a serious similarity between the statements given by the public relations people at Three Mile Island and the PR man in the movie that I had just written, "The China Syndrome." That in fact, you could take the speeches and pretty much trade them, "No danger to the public at any time," "No release of radiation." Then you find out a little while later, "Oh, yes, there was a release of radiation, but it wasn't very much." "Oh, well, maybe it was a little more than we thought." And it had this escalating quality. So as I approached Harrisburg that night, I was apprehensive, to say the least. But, on the other hand, you know, it's like combat photography. You figure maybe this'll be the great story, or whatever, and so you go into it anyway, even though you may get shot. But there was definitely a sensation that some of us were able to get shot, no question about it. And the next morning, after we had a chance to reconnoiter and get the lay of the land, O'Sullivan and I got in my car and drove toward the plant and we got lost on one of these roads south of Harrisburg. And we pulled over into a filling station and said, "Can you tell us how to get to Middletown?" And the guy said, "You go down this road to the end to that stoplight down there. Turn left. It'll be the second empty town that you come to." And that was pretty much what we found. When we got into Middletown, the streets were -- people had pretty much taken their own counsel and decided to get out of the way. But, the town was by then, of course, filling up with press. By the middle of the afternoon of the first day there were some three or four hundred reporters already in Harrisburg. And there were people arriving from all over the world. By noon on Thursday you could go into the tavern in downtown Middletown, the little town closest to the Three Mile Island plant, and you could hear Japanese and Chinese, French and German, and practically every other language as reporters were arriving from all over the world. And one of the driving forces behind this sudden attention was the movie. The accident at Three Mile Island was so closely paralleled to the situation that existed in "The China Syndrome." One story that I heard later was that at -- I believe it was at the "New York Daily News" -- at one of the major New York dailies the managing editor stood up on his desk and shouted to the city room, or whatever, "Who here has seen 'The China Syndrome'?" Three guys raised their hand. He said, "You, you, you, you're goin' to Harrisburg." And so the movie that we had created, intended as a warning for people to take a look at this potentially flawed and dangerous technology, turned out not to be a warning at all. The accident that happened was worse than the one that we postulated in the movie. So the movie then became a briefing film for the press.

back to Interview Transcripts | next


Program Description | Enhanced Transcript | Reference

THE FILM & MORE | SPECIAL FEATURE | TIMELINE | MAPS
PEOPLE & EVENTS | TEACHER'S GUIDE