The primary national goals for this period are economic development and growth, and as a consequence there is little to no discussion of environmental concerns.
Wood has been a major source of heating fuel, resulting in widespread deforestation. The Ten-Year Afforestation Plan restores forests and improves their overall quality. Environmental education is included as a basic component of school curricula. The transition to heavy and chemical industries exacts a high environmental price, and in 1977 Korea passes the Environmental Preservation Act.
The public expresses concerns about the environment, and the Environmental Administration is established. The new constitution includes environmental principles as a way of ensuring basic human rights. The government implements strict environmental controls, measures the impact of industry on the environment, and bills the costs of environmental cleanup to companies responsible for pollution.
Following the success of the first plan, the second Ten-Year Afforestation Plan increases the quality of commercial forests to generate increased sustainable lumber yields. In response to concerns about air pollution, unleaded gasoline is introduced. A nationwide education plan places environmental topics in eight major areas of study at all levels of education.
The Environmental Administration becomes the Ministry of Environment. The Environmental Preservation Act of 1977 is rewritten as four separate acts, covering air quality, water quality, noise, and toxic chemical control. Two new acts are added, one to guide general environmental policy and the other to provide a framework for resolving environmental disputes.
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