A group of people forming a cohesive, usually contentious, minority within a larger group.


A common Middle Eastern food made from seasoned ground chickpeas formed into balls and fried; a sandwich made from this food.

Fertile Crescent

A region of the Middle East arching across the northern part of the Syrian Desert and extending from the Nile Valley to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The ancient civilizations of Egypt, Phoenicia, Assyria, and Babylonia developed in this area, which was also the site of numerous migrations and invasions.


A hat usually made out of red felt, with a tassel. The hat is traditionally worn by men in eastern Mediterranean countries.

Fourteen Points Proposal

A proposal for ending World War I put forward by U.S. president Woodrow WiIson in a speech to Congress on January 8, 1918. In it, Wilson established the basis of a peace treaty and the foundation for the League of Nations.

Free Officers' Coup

A political upheaval resulting in the overthrow of Egypt's monarchy under King Faruq in July 1952. A secret Egyptian military group called the Society of Free Officers, led by Gamal Abd al-Nasser, believed the monarchy to be under the control of the British government, and after forcing the king's abdication assumed control of government.