Occupied Territories

Regions of the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and Golan Heights that have been occupied by the Israelis since the Six-Day War of 1967.

OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)

An organization formed in 1961 by several Gulf States. Its primary mission is to stabilize petroleum prices around the world.

Orthodox Christians

As members of the Eastern Orthodox Church, this branch of christianity is a product of Middle Eastern, Hellenic, and Slavic history and culture. It is seen as holding to traditional teachings and values born in Jerusalem.

Orthodox Judaism

The branch of Judaism that is committed to keeping its contract with the past. It stresses commitment to Jewish law and observance of all of the Jewish commandments and obligations.

Ottoman Empire

From 1300-1922, an empire based around Turkish sultans. At its peak (1683-1699) it extended through parts of Europe, the Balkans, Africa, and Asia.


A Muslim group that settled in what is modern Turkey. They established an empire from the 13th century until 1924.