Literally translated as "God's Students," this is a radical Islamic group formed in Afghanistan in 1994, whose intention is to turn the country into a "pure" Islamic state, subject to their own strict interpretations of the sharia. Throughout the 1990s, the Taliban committed public executions, stonings, and amputations to enforce sharia, and prohibited gambling, music, videos, and more. Women are to remain as invisible as possible.


A government tax on imports or exports.


An area of land or ground. May also refer to the physical characteristics of an area of land.


A region and ancient country in the southeast Balkan Peninsula north of the Aegean Sea. In the seventh century B.C.E., it was colonized by Greeks and later came under the control of Rome, Byzantium, and Ottoman Turkey. It is now divided between Greece and Turkey.


The five books of Moses in the Hebrew scriptures. The term also refers to the study of the Jewish tradition.

Truman Doctrine

U.S. president Harry Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology. The doctrine defined the main thrust of U.S. foreign policy in the face of an emergent rivalry for global power with what was then known as the Soviet Union.