Honeybees secrete wax from their abdomens to build the comb.
Middle-aged worker bees
are responsible for constructing the combs. Using wax secreted from their abdomens, they
build the combs downward from the top of the hive. They attach each comb, which consists
of two layers of horizontal, hexagonally shaped cells, to the roof and walls, leaving
small passageways along the walls to allow movement between combs. In a typical nest,
the combs will have cells for storing honey up top, followed by a layer of pollen-storage
cells, and then beneath that the brood cells for workers and, off to one side, drones.
Finally, at the bottom or off by themselves to the sides hang the peanut-shaped cells
that house infant queens.
Each brood cell contains a single larva of a honeybee.
A natural nest will have roughly 100,000 cells in half a dozen combs, whose total surface
area will be about 27 square feet. It takes more than two and a half pounds of beeswax to
create such a structure (not to mention about 15 pounds of honey to synthesize that wax).
A colony needs those 100,000 cells to store the more than 40 pounds of honey it requires
to survive a typical temperate winter and to provide nursery space for the roughly 20,000
immatures that the overwintering bees will rear in the spring.