Particle Physics

04
Jul

Thanks, Mom! Finding the Quantum of Ubiquitous Resistance

CERN’s July 4 declaration of victory in the quest to find the Higgs particle (or something very much like it) is a many-splendored triumph. It confirms, as it completes, the Standard Model of fundamental physics. It hints at the splendid new prospect of supersymmetry while debunking rival speculations. Most fundamentally, it reaffirms our scientific faith that nature works according to precise yet humanly comprehensible laws—and, importantly, rewards our moral commitment to testing that faith rigorously.

LHC tunnet

Inside the tunnel of the Large Hadron Collider, particles speed through a 27-kilometer ring of superconducting magnets. Credit: David Parker/Photo Researchers, Inc.


A few months ago, when the evidence was suggestive but not yet conclusive, I discussed here the nature of the Higgs particle, and what its discovery would mean for the enterprise of physics. Now I will supplement that discussion, focusing on what it took to win the victory.

Physicists had to overcome three challenges to discover the Higgs particle: producing it, detecting it, and proving that they really had produced and detected it.

To put these challenges in context, let me introduce another perspective on what the Higgs particle is: The Higgs particle is The Quantum of Ubiquitous Resistance. I’m referring here to a universe-filling medium that offers resistance to the motion of many elementary particles, thus producing what we commonly think of as their mass.

The Standard Model of physics—our best-yet model of the matter and forces that make our universe—requires, for consistency of its equations, that many of its ingredients are particles with zero mass. These particles should travel at the speed of light in empty space, but in reality, some of them—like quarks, leptons, and W and Z bosons—travel more slowly. What is slowing them down?

Our Standard Model comes equipped with a Standard Reconciliation: Space is never empty! Space is filled with a material that resists the motion of those particles. Over the past decades, physicists have deduced many of the properties of the Ubiquitous Resistance by observing its effects on the forms of matter we can see. They even gave it a name: the Higgs field. But none of the known particles had the right properties to build up the Ubiquitous Resistance. So theorists drew up the specifications for a particle that would do the job. They called it the Higgs particle.

But wishing doesn’t make it so. Only experiments can grant (or deny) theorists’ wishes. With that in mind, let us consider the three challenges facing experimental observation of the Higgs particle.

Producing it

Any physical material, hit hard enough, is bound to break. The smallest possible shard reveals the most basic unit of the material: its “quantum.” For the Ubiquitous Resistance, that quantum is the Higgs particle.

To break off a piece of the Ubiquitous Resistance, though, requires producing disturbances of unprecedented intensity, albeit confined to tiny volumes of space for tiny intervals of time. That is what the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is all about. By accelerating beams of protons to extremely high energy, and bringing them into collision, the LHC creates “Little Bangs” systematically.

Detecting it

Once you’ve produced a Higgs particle, the next challenge is to detect it. This isn’t as easy as it sounds, as the Higgs rapidly decays into other particles. We can look for those secondary particles, but most of them are useless for detection because they are produced more abundantly by other processes. The Higgs’ tiny signal competes with a cacophony of noise. The most likely mode of Higgs decay, into a bottom quarks and its antiparticle, in particular, is diluted by garden-variety strong interaction processes which produce those particles in droves.

So detection requires cunning.

Some decay processes that we might be able to detect are sketched below. Each has its own advantages and limitations, and each adds information, so experimenters have pursued them all. (For more information on the characters you’ll encounter below—W bosons, Z bosons, and the rest of the particle zoo, this is a good starting point.)

#1: Photon pairs

gluonsHiggsPhotons_sm

After a Higgs particle is created, quantum fluctuations convert it into a particle-antiparticle pair, which recombines into two photons.

The observable signal, in this case, is the pair of photons emerging from the decay. From the energy and momentum of the two photons, one can reconstruct the mass of the Higgs particle. This is significant because there are many other ways to make photons in collisions at the LHC that don’t require the production and decay of Higgs particles. The Higgs signal would be swamped, if not for the redeeming feature that randomly produced photons will “add up” to indicate random masses for their hypothetical progenitors, and only by rare accident land on the Higgs particle mass, whatever it happens to be. The signature of the Higgs, then, is an excess of photon pairs in a very narrow mass range. The mass where there’s an excess is fingered as the Higgs particle mass. Since the energy and momentum of photons can be measured accurately, this method gives an excellent measurement of the Higgs particle mass.

The main limitation of this technique, besides the unavoidable background “noise,” is the fact that this decay process is quite rare compared to other possibilities.

#2: W boson+ (Higgs -> bottom-antibottom)

higgsProcesses_sm

Here is one of those other possibilities: In this case, the Higgs particle is produced as a byproduct of the creation of a W boson. The W boson itself decays, but in ways that experimentalists are thoroughly familiar with, and can often identify with confidence. The presence of the W boson, itself a relatively rare occurrence, helps this class of event to stand out above the strong interaction background. Thus the most common Higgs decay, into bottom-antibottom pairs, becomes discernable when you demand an accompanying W.

There are two more possibilities:

#3: Higgs -> WW -> lepton + antilepton + neutrino + antineutrino
higgsProcesses2_sm

#4: H -> ZZ -> 2 leptons + 2 antileptons

higgsProcesses3_sm1

In Processes 3 and 4, the observed particles are leptons (l), which is just another way of saying that they might be either electrons or muons, and their antiparticles; the ghostly neutrinos escape detection. The Higgs boson barely interacts with those light particles, but it can communicate with them indirectly, through fluctuations in the W and Z boson fields (a.k.a. “virtual particles”). Process 4 is special, in that it is the only case where the background is so small that individual events, as opposed to enhanced probabilities, can be ascribed with confidence to Higgs particles.

By measuring the rates of all of these processes, one can determine how powerfully the Higgs communicates with many different things: two gluons, two photons, two Z bosons, two W bosons, and bottom-antibottom pairs. Their different rates are logically independent, of course, but theory connects them.

Proving it

This is the final challenge. Finding the Higgs boson depends on assuming that the Standard Model is reliable, so we can work around the “background noise”. Here years of hard bread-and-butter work at earlier accelerators—especially the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP), which previously occupied the same CERN tunnel in which the LHC resides today, and the Tevatron at Fermilab, as well as at the LHC itself—pays off big. Over the years, many thousands of quantitative predictions of the Standard Model have been tested and verified. Its record is impeccable; it has earned our trust.

The next step is to search for data that the Standard Model can’t explain, like excesses of the decay products discussed earlier, and compare them against our predictions for yields from a hypothetical Higgs boson. Insofar as these quantitative predictions match the observations, which they do, one can speak of proof.

Future observations may reveal new effects, or small quantitative discrepancies in the effects already observed. (I’ll be surprised if they don’t!) But the original, simplest sketch of what The Quantum of Ubiquitous Resistance could possibly be resembles reality enough to pass muster, at least as its first draft.

Finally, I’d like to reprise the conclusion of my earlier piece, in which I considered what might happen if the hints of the Higgs did not pan out:

And if not?

I’ll be heartbroken. Mother Nature will have shown that Her taste is very different from mine. I don’t doubt that it’s superior, but I’ll have to struggle to understand it.

Thanks, Mom!

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fwilczek-big

Frank Wilczek

    Frank Wilczek has received many prizes for his work in physics, including the Nobel Prize of 2004 for work he did as a graduate student at Princeton University, when he was only 21 years old. He is known, among other things, for the discovery of asymptotic freedom, the development of quantum chromodynamics, the invention of axions, and the exploration of new kinds of quantum statistics. Frank is currently the Herman Feshbach professor of physics at MIT. His latest book is The Lightness of Being.

    • http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1401994030 Gene Monroe

      Obviously, there’s something I don’t understand here. If the Higgs particle is so short-lived, how can it be ubiquitous? Is it something like (as I understand it, anyhow) a virtual photon, that’s created by quantum fluctuations and disappears within the time frame allowed by quantum uncertainty? I’m no physicist, just someone who enjoys following news from the sciences.

      • Mark

        Excellent question! It is the “shard” that is short-lived, the “Ubiquitous Resistance” is not just a uniform distribution of many Higgs particles. They form a medium (technically speaking condensate), which are held together by their interactions. One useful analogy may be neutrons in the nucleus. Free neutrons decay, but when bound into a (stable) nucleus they are basically eternal.

        • Laura

          My question is related to this one. As I understand the various forces, they operate through charge carriers – gluon for strong force, photon for electromagnetic, etc. But if Higgs particles are the charge carriers for the Higgs force, and there have been none in the universe since the big bang, up until the LHC started turning them out, how does the Higgs field operate on particles to give them mass today?

          • Mark

            Firstly, the Higgs was discovered, by producing a real Higgs, while charge mediation goes through virtual particles. So even before real W and Z bosons (which are comparably heavy to the Higgs) were produced in the 1980s they, as virtual particles, happily mediated the weak interaction. Hence, you can mediate forces with heavy particles. The heavier the particle, the weaker the force is.

            However, the way the Higgs gives mass to particles is bit different. Because Higgs particles are forming a medium (condensate) throughout space, they are omnipresent and interact with the particles all the time, giving you the resistance that Frank described. Pictorially, to detect a Higgs, you had to knock it out from the condensate, and that requires the LHC. The force mediators for electromagnetic and weak forces don’t form a condensate, while the story with gluons is more complicated. So, instead of knocking them out from a condensate you have to produce them out of the vacuum. One key difference between the other force mediators and the Higgs is that the gluons, photon, W’s and Z are spin-1, while the Higgs is spin-0. This allows them to behave differently.

            In summary: forces are mediated by virtual (integer spin) particles, the Higgs force is different from the others, because Higgs particles form a condensate.

            • Laura

              Okay, thanks I think I get that. As much as someone with no math can “get” it. So my next question is, since real Higgs particles surround us, although part of a condensate, their mass must contribute to the mass of the universe, unlike all those virtual bosons. So is their predicted mass included in our calculations of total mass in the universe? Or will this discovery allow us to identify them as part of dark matter?

        • http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1401994030 Gene Monroe

          Thanks, Mark, for your response. I understand what you’re saying and will give it some thought.

      • Vijay Gupta

        I believe what is stated is Higgs Field is ubiguitous.
        Higgs Bosons are result of broken piece seperated from this self healing field.
        So they are formed under great disturbance as caused by colliding high energy particles. (Can be visualized as Compressed and quantized Higgs Fields with an energy equivalence of 125 GEV).
        The self healing makes the Higgs field re-absorb higgs boson.

        At this is how, an engineering mind will interpret and extrapolate Frank’s word.

    • http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100000037597632 Don Hamilton

      Now that you’ve got that out of the way,can we get back to work on the Sex Robots?

      • Ponkins2

        They designed them years ago, and they are sitting in a warehouse in Nevada. It is a hush, hush operation. All this talk about Large Electron-Positron Colliders and Higgs boson is really just an attempt to distract us from the robot issue; just another government conspiracy.

    • Steven Gatlin

      Do we have any idea at all why the Higgs field only offers resistance to changes in motion? In other words, why doesn’t the resistance caused by the Higgs field cause objects that are moving to slow to a stop?

      • Fred D.

        Good question. The mechanism seems to be only effective for acceleration. But you have to ask yourself the question; what does it mean to “slow to a stop”? At rest relative to what?

      • Vijay Gupta

        Resistance by definition is antidote of change. Thus if by motion, the conditions change between source and destination points, resistance can setin. This is simply stated in law of conservation of momentum.

        The intuition, of resistance leading objects to stop, orignates from Energy conservation.

        I see these two are different areas of investigation. However, I donot subscribe to the view of universal medium such as Ether.

        In 5-Dimension model of universe, Neutrino and Higgs Bosons will share same family of particles – space sigularities. Both are not constrained in motion, by speed of light.

        Incidently speed of light is constant as a result of mapping of time dimension to spatial dimension in drift direction.

        • Daryl Pinksen

          I’ve been wondering the same thing as Steven Gatlin. Aside from the spacetime curvature caused by massive particles, inertia/mass is only observable when a particle’s velocity changes. Therefore a particle’s interaction with the Higgs field must only occur during acceleration of the particle. Acceleration will only occur if a particle is acted upon by an external (unbalanced) force. Is there a visceral (minimally-technical) answer to why the Higgs field would behave as if it didn’t exist until such time as an external force acts upon the particle?

    • Vijay Gupta

      The Standard Model of physics

      Thanks for bringing out in such a clear fashion the thought processes behind Higgs Bosons. Your statement below precisely puts it across to non-physicists ;

      ‘The Higgs particle is The Quantum of Ubiquitous Resistance. I’m referring here to a universe-filling medium that offers resistance to the motion of many elementary particles, thus producing what we commonly think of as their mass.’

      I thought interpretation of ‘Matter as Extended Substance’ from French philosopher R. Descartes and ether has been discounted.

      Another way of understanding nature consistence with standard model and human intuition ‘Space contains Energy’ is to consider space to have 5-Dimensions.The five dimensions include 3 dimensions of space (3-D infinite continuum), and 2 dimensions of matter (Energy and time of 2-D Matter). The dimension time is mapped to one dimension (drift direction of particle). With this model, all type of particles – atoms, nucleus, elementary particles – moving at speed less than speed, photons – equals speed of light, neutrinos – capable of speed greater than light are explained.

      We don’t need to attribute any characteristic to space, but as a container of energy. In addition gravitation, action at a distance etc are easily understood as characteristic of these objects. The cosmic observations (Expanding universe, Big Bang epoch, Background radiation) are integrated into this 5-D model of universe.

      The newly discovered particle is looking for its place in standard model of science. But as quantized space – is not amicable to human intuition. This will push abstractions in science to beyond comprehension of non-physicists.
      The newly discovered particle is looking for its place in standard model of science. But as quantized space – is not amicable to human intuition. This will push abstractions in science to beyond comprehension of non-physicists.

    • Vijay Gupta

      This is an excellent article. This is understandable to people like me who are not physicist but have interest in science.

      Can we say Higgs Boson’s are complimentary particles to Neutrinos? While Neutrinos represent singularity in space continuum of one type, Higgs Boson represents singularity of another type. The singularities in space are introduced by intense activity (Interaction between two elementary particles).

      Both particles carry space disturbance from one compilation of energy bearing particles to another.

      That is how; these experimental findings may be integrated in 5-Dimensional model of Universe.

    • Vijay Gupta

      Higgs Boson have become physical reality. Since Pico-Physics encompasses nature without classification of different area, it is natural for us to have a serious look at new discovery. The subject matter of this discussion also available at http://picophysics.org/applications/higgs-bosons/.

      The essential difference between mainstream physics and picophysics is how property of inertia and gravity is assigned. PicoPhysics do not distinguish between mass and energy. PicoPhysics assigns these properties along with energy to Knergy. Mainstream is looking for answers in elementary particles. In picophysics, there are very few elementray particles – UCO unit conserved object and neutrino. Integer number of UCOs are confined into main stream particles. These particles have the limitation on observed speed being less that light speed due to vortex like flow of UCO inside the particle. So particles with mass have the speed of light as limit.

      The appearance of Higgs Boson is the apparent image of colliding particle. The decay of Higgs boson into two photons represent the gravitational force of attraction never exceeds the level to confine them into a particle. (Expanding spiral on loss of confinement with separation from mother particle, preceding decay into photons).

      The proof of this hypothesis is feasible, if the measurements are repeated at different energy of the incident particle. The pattern in terms of peaks and valleys shall remain essentially same, with shift in energy axis. The prominence of 125 Gev peak shall be reduced if experiment is conducted with particles accelerated to different energy levels.

      CERN experiment may make the internal structure of mainstream particles visible.

      In PicoPhysics Higgs Boson will be a virtual particle, an image at the time UCOs tear apart overcoming gravitational force of attraction between them.

    • Fred_M

      What I find interesting is that the Higgs field appears to be a reincarnation of the 19th century “Aether” that permeated the known universe at that time. While the mathematics was not as advanced as today’s, the Aether was a viable theory that was famously tested by the Michelson-Morley experiments. The negative results provided many of the basis for Einstein’s subsequent theories. Did they perhaps run an invalid experiment to detect this field? Maybe I’ve made to much of a tenuous connection.

      • http://academia.edu/ Shyamoli Chaudhuri Plassmann

        In fact, this was roughly what 19thC physicists assumed; their focus was on the photon, the particles of light, or electromagnetic radiation, and the fact that their motion could not detect an “aether” led to the remarkable discovery that photons were “massless”; that there was an ultimate speed, the speed of light, one of the axioms of Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity. A very important distinction between the 19thC phsyicist’s concept of the “aether” field, was that it was based on material properties, like water; ie., water certainly provides inertial resistance to an object, and that could lead to deduction of its mass. Space itself, empty space, is a quantum field; the Higgs condensate that fills all of spacetime, is the vacuum, which is a condensate of virtual Higgs particles. The motion of very energetic real particles in this vacuum, can cause the production of detectable Higgses. As is explained in the signal phenomenon of interest, the two photon decay, and in the background particle interaction phenomenal to this signal, in Wilczek’s article.

        • Fred_M

          Thank you for your reply. I appreciated your comments and you certainly made me rethink my comments especially my use of the word “invalid”.

          In the Wilczek’s article, the photon pairs detection process shows the interaction of two photons with gluons, quarks, the Higgs particle, and finally back to the detectable photons.

          Assuming the resulting detectable photons are identical to the the original photons, then at a “macro” level the two photons appeared to enter a region of space and emerged from that region after a measurable time. If the photons had no interaction with the Higgs field then they should have traverse the distance of this region in a time based on the c. Since they did interact to create the Higgs particle which then decayed back into the detectable photons, an additional interactive time must have been introduce.

          The Michelson-Morley experiment results were based on the time difference of photons traveling an equal distance but interacting supposedly with the “Aether” with the results measured by the interference patterns.

          If the length of the measurement table in the Michelson-Morley experiment had been sufficient long, could this interactive time been detected? Could perhaps some of the data scatter be attributed to the interaction of the photons and the Higgs field?

    • Anonymous

      Some questions from a layperson. If the Higgs is ubiquitous and uniform throughout the universe such that we observe all regular matter to have mass at all times and in every location and if the Higgs has a certain amount of energy, what do these facts imply about the overall energy in an expanding universe? If Higgs is energy and energy cannot be created or destroyed and yet the universe is expanding, where is the energy for the expanding ubiquitous, uniform Higgs field (expanding universe) coming from? Is it coming from a slow but inevitable dissolution of all matter into the Higgs field?

      The search for the Higgs began with the question: “where does mass come from?” This question always puzzled me because energy equals mass and we have measured the energy of many particles already. If we distinguish between energy and mass (which Einstein proved was a “no-no”), then “what” exactly is moving through the Higgs field? What exactly is the Higgs field ascribing mass to? On the other hand, I seem to remember hearing that the energies we have discovered of these isolated particles not being sufficient to
      account for the mass we observe in aggreagate. Is this correct? In this case, the Higgs field was proposed as a uniform way for all particles to attract that additional mass needed to meet observations.

      With regard to the question of whether the Higgs field would cause an observable violation of the law of inertia (if we didn’t know about the Higgs field), I wonder about that too. My first thought is that the Higgs field is so weak relative to the motion of the movement of large bodies that it would not be observed and is neglible. Although the Higgs field may be uniform and ubiquitous throughout space (as far as we think so far), this does not mean that the Higgs is space itself; it does not curve (vary in density), as Einstein predicted space to do, which “is” gravitation which causes the laws of motion. It gives other particles additional mass which, in aggregate chunks, we observe to behave in certain ways relative to other chunks in a given expanse of…well, space The question of what space really is remains open and elusive.

    • Mrs. G

      I love reading about these discoveries even though I lack the mathematics to fully understand them. I shown my 9th grade Honor’s science class the Elegant Universe and I believe it gets their inquisitive juices flowing along with mine. We often talk about the Higgs particle and now we can expand our somewhat limited knowledge…thanks for making our lives more challenging. I love reading all the wonderful questions and answers!

      • Fred_M

        Mrs. G, I’m always glad to hear when high school students show enthusiasm for science. Thank you for instilling them with the desire to wonder.

        While they may not have the mathematics to follow the nuances of quantum mechanics, field theory, and the like, they can certainly expand their imaginations by applying the general concepts

        For instance testing theories by examining the extremes. Does the Higgs field exist outside the boundaries of the universe? Or to the other extreme, was the “Higgs” field generated first at the start of the big bang? It becomes a little like the old “which came first the chicken or the hen”? If the Higgs field affects particles moving through it, does the particle affect the Higgs field? If effect is there evidence of the particles passage?

        These kind of general questions can still be conceived in the kids’ minds and discussed without getting bogged down in the details of the mathematics.

        Good luck to you and your class!

    • Ujjalgoraya

      Excellent Article but let me ask a simple question. We were told that Higgs Particle if found would be the ‘Final Particle’ the God particle. Now it has been found and now the Physicists have stated to say Higgs particle decays into “Other Particles” So soon some one will name some new particle and scientists will be after finding this new “particle” Never ending saga of “Particle Finding”

    • Bjan

      I may be showing my ignorance here, but isn’t calling the Higgs the “God particle” sort of like claiming that finding the last bolt that holds a house together proves that there was no builder? There is no logical necessity that forces such a conclusion, we’ve just begun to tease out–through mathematical theorem and experimental validation–the probable mechanism by which our “House” is held together, not whether or not there is an architect.

    • http://www.facebook.com/fundamentally Hans van Leunen

      In 1953 Dennis Sciama wrote his “On the origin of inertia”. He uses field theory rather than a difficult to understand mechanism. His disadvantage is that he had to rely on an obscure field for which he applied Maxwell-like equations. He used the local superposition of the tails of that field that were mainly contributed by the most distant particles. The superposition causes a huge local potential. Field theory then explains that nothing happens to a local particle as long as it moves uniformly. However, a change of speed goes together with the existence of an extra field that counteracts the acceleration. This is exactly the activity of inertia.
      Sciama would have had a far better comprehensible point, when he would have used a quantum state function as his example field. This becomes possible when use is made of quaternionic rather than complex probability amplitude distributions as quantum state functions. The extra two dimensions add extra functionality to the quantum state functions, such that they carry charge density distributions and current density distributions that bring scalar potentials and vector potentials to the scene. The local superposition is then mainly constituted out of the tails of the quantum state functions of distant particles. The considered local particle is coupled to this background field. The whole becomes a far more consistent application of well-known field theory. It does explain inertia. It does not yet explain the local curvature that arises in the direct surround of massive particles. However, that can be explained when the Dirac equation is interpreted as a balance equation that couples the divergence of the quantum state function to a background field. The currents in the coupled quantum state function can affect the density (read curvature) of the local space!
      Read more at http://www.e-physics.eu

    • emansnas

      I’m a layman with an interest in physics. I’d appreciate clarification from someone regarding the process by which the Higgs particle is produced. In my limited understanding there seems two possibilities: 1) Higgs particle is in some way contained in one or both of the colliding protons, or 2) Higgs particle is a product of energy conversion back to matter after the protons collide. I presume 2) is more likely closer to what actually happens – is this true? This brings up several ancillary questions, e.g., 3) If 2. is true, what factor(s) determine what kind of particles are produced when two protons collide? Is it simply dependent upon the energy levels obtained from the collision? 4) Given E=mc2, Are there different kinds of ‘E’? I.e., what determines what type of particles (matter) result when energy converts to mass?

    • Anonymous

      Eppur Si Muove, Higgs Particle YOK
      Regardless Of Whatever Whoever

      Regardless Of Whatever Is Said By Whoever Says It -
      Higgs Particle YOK.

      S Hawking is simply wrong in accepting it. Obviously wrong.
      Everyone who accepts the story of the Higgs particle is simply wrong.
      Plain commonsense.
      Singularity and the Big Bang MUST have happened with the smallest base universe particles, the gravitons, that MUST be both energy and mass, even if they are inert mass just one smallest fraction of a second at singularity. All mass formats evolve from gravitons that convert into energy i.e. extricate from their gravitons clusters into mass formats in motion, energy. And they all end up again as mass in a repeat singularity.
      Universe expansion and re-contraction proceed simultaneously..

      Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
      http://universe-life.com/
      http://universe-life.com/2012/02/03/universe-energy-mass-life-compilation/
      ===========================
      Refresh Some Comprehensions…

      Who Suppresses Science Creativity? Academia Suppresses Creativity?

      Again and again, ad absurdum:
      Since the 1920s Science is suppressed by a Technology Culture, tightly supervised by a religious old style trade union , AAAS…

      Liberate Your Mind From Concepts Dictated By Religious Trade-Union AAAS:

      USA Science? Re-Comprehend Origins And Essence

      * Higgs Particle? Dark Energy/Matter? Epigenetics? All YOK!

      * Earth-life is just another, self-replicating, mass format.

      * All mass formats evolve from gravitons, the primal universe mass-energy particles.

      * Since singularity gravitons are extricated from their big-bang clusters , become energy, at a constant rate.

      * All mass formats follow natural selection, i.e. intake of energy or their energy taken in by other mass formats.

      * Evolution Is The Quantum Mechanics Of Natural Selection.

      * Quantum mechanics are mechanisms, possible or probable or actual mechanisms of natural selection.

      * Life’s Evolution is the quantum mechanics of biology.

      * Every evolution, of all disciplines, is the quantum mechanics of the discipline’s natural selection.

      See:
      Update Concepts-Comprehension…
      http://universe-life.com/2011/12/13/21st-century-science-whence-and-whither/
      Earth life genesis from aromaticity-H bonding
      http://universe-life.com/2011/09/30/earthlife-genesis-from-aromaticityh-bonding/
      Universe-Energy-Mass-Life Compilation
      http://universe-life.com/2012/02/03/universe-energy-mass-life-compilation/
      Seed of human-chimp genome diversity
      http://universe-life.com/2011/07/10/seed-of-human-chimp-genomes-diversity/
      New Era For Science Including Genomics
      http://universe-life.com/2012/04/14/new-era-for-science-including-genomics/

      Dov Henis
      (comments from 22nd century)

      • Anonymous

        All The Mass Of The Universe Formed At The Pre-Big-Bang Singularity

        The universe is a two-poles entity, an all-mass and an all-energy poles.

        The elementary particle of the universe is the graviton. The gravitons are compacted into the universal inert singularity mass only for the smallest fraction of a second, when all the gravitons of the universe are compacted together, with zero distance between all of them. This state is mandated by their small size and by their hence weak force.

        The big bang is the shattering of the short-lived singularity mass into fragments that later became galactic clusters. This is inflation. The shattering is the start of movement of the shatters i.e. the start of reconversion of mass into energy, which is mass in motion. This reconversion proceeds at a constant rate since the big bang since the resolution of gravitons, their release from their shatters-clusters, proceeds at constant rate due to their weak specific force due to their small size.

        Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
        http://universe-life.com/

        • Anonymous

          Energy-Mass Poles Of the Universe

          The universe is a two-poles entity, an all-mass and an
          all-energy poles.

          Singularity and the Big Bang MUST have happened with the smallest base universe particles, the gravitons, that MUST be both energy and mass, even if they are inert mass just one smallest fraction of a second at
          singularity. All mass formats evolve from gravitons that convert into energy i.e. escape their gravitons clusters to become mass formats in motion, i.e. energy. And they all end up again as mass in a repeat universal singularity.

          Universe expansion and re-contraction proceed
          simultaneously.

          Graviton is the elementary particle of the universe. The
          gravitons are compacted into the universal inert singularity mass only for the smallest fraction of a second, when all the gravitons of the universe are compacted together, inert, with zero distance between all of them. This state is feasible and mandated by their small size and by their hence weak force.

          The Big Bang is the shattering of the short-lived
          singularity mass into fragments that later became galactic clusters. This is inflation. The shattering is the start of movement of the shatters i.e. the start of reconversion of mass into energy, mass in motion. This reconversion proceeds at a constant rate since the big bang, since the
          annealing-tempering of singularity and the start of resolution of gravitons.
          The release of gravitons from their shatters-clusters proceeds at constant rate due to their weak specific force due to their small size.

          Gravity is propensity of energy reconversion to mass.
          Inflation and expansion are per Newton. Since the Big
          Bang galactic clusters are losing mass at constant rate. Mass, gravitons, continue escaping at constant rate from their Big Bang fragments-clusters thus becoming energy, mass in motion, thus thrusting the clusters. Constant thrust
          and decreasing galactic clusters weight accelerate the separation of clusters from each other. Plain common sense.

          A commonsensible conjecture is that the Universe Contraction is initiated following the Big-Bang event, as released moving gravitons (energy) deliver their thrust to
          other particles and are collected by and stored in black holes at very low energy levels steadily leading to the re-formation of the Universe Singularity, simultaneously with expansion, i.e. that universal expansion and contraction are going on simultaneously.

          The conjectured implications is that the Universe is a product of A Single Universal Black Hole with an extremely brief singularity of ALL the gravitons of the universe, which
          is feasible and possible and mandated because gravitation is a very weak force due to the small size of the gravitons, the primal mass-energy particles of the universe.

          Proposing,

          Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
          http://universe-life.com/

    • Imasculptor

      Ok, now what is dark matter?

    • Anonymous

      2012: Restructure Science Plans, Policies, Budgets

      A. Higgs Particle YOK

      Eppur Si Muove, Higgs Particle YOK
      Regardless Of Whatever Whoever

      Regardless Of Whatever Is Said By Whoever Says It -
      Higgs Particle YOK.

      S Hawking is simply wrong in accepting it. Obviously wrong.
      Everyone who accepts the story of the Higgs particle is simply wrong.
      Plain commonsense.
      Singularity and the Big Bang MUST have happened with the smallest base universe particles, the gravitons, that MUST be both energy and mass, even if they are inert mass just one smallest fraction of a second at singularity. All mass formats evolve from gravitons that convert into energy i.e. extricate from their gravitons clusters into mass formats in motion, energy. And they all end up again as mass in a repeat singularity.
      Universe expansion and re-contraction proceed simultaneously..

      Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
      http://universe-life.com/
      http://universe-life.com/2012/02/03/universe-energy-mass-life-compilation/

      B. Refresh Present SCIENCE Comprehensions And Restructure Science Plans, Policies And Budgets

      Who Suppresses Science Creativity? Does Academia Suppress Creativity?

      Again and again, ad absurdum:
      Since the 1920s SCIENCE is suppressed by a Technology Culture, tightly supervised by a religious old style trade union , the AAAS…

      Liberate Your Mind From Concepts Dictated By The Religious Trade-Union AAAS:

      USA Science? Re-Comprehend Origins And Essence

      * Higgs Particle? Dark Energy/Matter? Epigenetics? All YOK!

      * Earth-life is just another, self-replicating, mass format.

      * All mass formats evolve from gravitons, the primal universe mass-energy particles.

      * Since singularity gravitons are extricated from their big-bang clusters , i.e. become mobile, energy, at a constant rate.

      * All mass formats follow natural selection, i.e. intake of energy or their energy taken in by other mass formats.

      * Evolution Is The Quantum Mechanics Of Natural Selection.

      * Quantum mechanics are mechanisms, possible or probable or actual mechanisms of natural selection.

      * Life’s Evolution is the quantum mechanics of biology.

      * Every evolution, of all disciplines, is the quantum mechanics of the discipline’s natural selection.

      See:
      Update Concepts-Comprehension…
      http://universe-life.com/2011/12/13/21st-century-science-whence-and-whither/
      Earth life genesis from aromaticity-H bonding
      http://universe-life.com/2011/09/30/earthlife-genesis-from-aromaticityh-bonding/
      Universe-Energy-Mass-Life Compilation
      http://universe-life.com/2012/02/03/universe-energy-mass-life-compilation/
      Seed of human-chimp genome diversity
      http://universe-life.com/2011/07/10/seed-of-human-chimp-genomes-diversity/
      New Era For Science Including Genomics
      http://universe-life.com/2012/04/14/new-era-for-science-including-genomics/

      Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)

      C. Universe Inflation And Expansion

      Inflation on Trial
      Astrophysicists interrogate one of their most successful theories
      http://www.sciencenews.org/view/feature/id/342219/title/Inflation_on_Trial

      Commonsense:

      Inflation and expansion are per Newton.

      Since the Big Bang galactic clusters loose mass at constant rate. Mass, gravitons, continue escaping at constant rate from their Big Bang fragments-clusters thus becoming energy, mass in motion, thus thrusting the clusters. Constant thrust and decreasing galactic clusters weight accelerate the separation of clusters from each other.

      Common sense.

      Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
      http://universe-life.com/

    • Rick Kane

      Hello Mr. Wilczek, I would love to have your thoughts on some major discoveries I’ve made recently. There is nothing I can say to not come of crazy so please bare with me. I have opened a door to another world where I can show you everything from UFOs and USOs, to Creatures large and small. I can even incorporate myself into scenes with creatures that clearly see me, but I can’t see them. How about Orbs the resemble Jelly Fish but flying in the sky? In fact, my evidence strongly suggests that many UFOs may be from life that has evolved right here on Earth. This may all seem crazy, but if you were to view the 7 videos you’ll notice the opener is a tunnel of Orbs. And it only gets crazier from there! If you are interested in learning more just let me know. BTW, Morgan Freeman is a subscriber to my channel on YouTube and says my evidence may be “world changing”. The photos below are just a fraction of my evidence and should at least get you thinking.

      Thanks, and I hope to hear your thoughts.

      Rick