Thought Experiments


Video: Do We Live in a Multiverse?

Could parallel universes exist? If so, what would they look like and how would they form? Video by Greg Kestin; article by Charles Choi.

Our universe may not be alone. It could just be one of multiple realms making up a “multiverse.”

In fact, there are a half-dozen or so lines of reasoning that lead to this conclusion, with some pointing to the even wilder possibility that we live in a kind of multiverse-within-a-multiverse-within-a-multiverse.

As far-fetched as the idea of a multiverse might seem, “it’s not like we come up with these crazy ideas and try to shove them into our theories,” said theoretical physicist Brian Greene at Columbia University, author of “The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos,” which explores a range of possible multiverses. “Our mathematical theories naturally yield these unfamiliar notions of other universes, and we’ve got a great deal of respect for mathematics, because over the centuries it’s proven itself a very potent guide to reality. This doesn’t mean the conclusions of mathematics are necessarily right, but they’re sufficiently compelling to make us willing to investigate them.”

The inflationary multiverse

What if our Big Bang was just one of many? Cosmologists think that, in the moments after the Big Bang, the universe experienced a rapid growth spurt called inflation. “When one explores the mathematics of inflation, one finds that in most versions of inflation, the Big Bang should not be a unique event,” said Greene. “Instead, our Big Bang should be one of a series, perhaps an infinite series, of Big Bangs.”

Physicists call this scenario eternal inflation, and it suggests that our universe is just one bubble “within a grand collection of a larger multiverse” that is regularly popping out new bubble universes, Greene said. “It doesn’t take much energy to spawn a universe, because inflation has this wonderful property of mining energy from a reservoir of energy contained in the gravitational field that, in most models, one cannot ever use all up.”

Credit: Flickr user Novidry, adapted under a Creative Commons license.

It might even be possible to test this idea by looking for evidence that such bubble universes have collided with one another. “If our universe got hit by an expanding bubble, there should be some imprint of that collision in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the heat left over from the Big Bang,” Greene said. “People have been scouring CMB data looking for the cosmic fingerprints of such collisions, looking for telltale signs of other realms by performing observations on our own realm.”

The quilted multiverse

Not convinced? There’s more than one way to build a multiverse, and the quilted multiverse starts with the simple assumption that the universe goes on forever. If the universe is really infinite, then it contains infinite variations—and infinite copies—of everything. You know the one about the monkey typing Shakespeare? Given enough time, he won’t peck out just one edition of the Complete Works; he’ll bang them out infinitely. “You can imagine there are realms out there that are close copies or identical copies of ours somewhere else in the universe, or versions of ours that are modified in mind-bending ways,” Greene said. “These chunks of space would be like patches in a quilted patchwork, which is where the name for this idea comes from.”

To test the quilted multiverse hypothesis, scientists have to find out if space really is infinite. “There have been suggestions that space might not go on forever, but might, for instance, have the shape of a giant donut, or torus as we call it,” Greene said. “In this configuration where the universe does not go on forever, if you look at distant stars or galaxies, the light from them can travel multiple cycles, yielding multiple images of the same object, and if one sees those, that would be pretty strong evidence the universe does not go on forever.”

The quantum multiverse

In the quantum world, there is no way to predict with certainty the outcome of a measurement before it’s made. A system exists in a “superposition” of states until the moment that it is observed. So how does a single state emerge from that jumble of possibilities? Perhaps, some theorists say, each outcome really does come to be–in its own distinct universe.

When quantum mechanics “came blistering onto the scene of physics in the 1920s and 1930s, it introduced a new idea into physics — that there are experiments where one can only ever predict the possibility of one outcome or another, as opposed to the older idea of Newtonian physics, which suggested one can predict what will happen with absolute certainty,” Greene said. “That raised an interesting puzzle: If a particle has a 30 percent likelihood of being here and 40 percent chance of being there and 20 percent likelihood of being way over there, when experiments find particles at one location or another, what happens to the other outcomes? In the 1950s, Hugh Everett, then a grad student at Princeton, suggested all possible outcomes do occur, each in its own universe.”

There are alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics, such as Ghirardi–Rimini–Weber (or GRW) theory, named after its developers, which suggests each event can only have one possible outcome, Greene noted. Since many of these other interpretations make predictions that scientists can potentially test, maybe one day researchers can find support for them, which would weaken the case for a quantum multiverse. Until then, it’s possible that every possible timeline actually exists, including ones where fictional characters such as Sherlock Holmes actually lived.

The brane multiverse

String theory proposes that, underneath it all, the universe is made up of little one-dimensional threads that vibrate in different ways to make the particles with which we’re familiar. In the mid-1990s, theorists suggested that these strings could form higher-dimensional structures they dubbed membranes, or branes for short. The universe as we know it occupies one such brane.

“If one can have a big 3-D structure, it could be equivalent to our universe, and theory allows multiple such 3-D objects, or multiple universes,” Greene said. “An analogy I like to use is that everything we know of our lives in essence takes place on a giant slice of bread, and there’s this larger cosmic loaf that has other slices, with each slice being a universe.”

The most powerful particle accelerator on Earth, the Large Hadron Collider, might be able to test whether the brane multiverse is real. “If you collide protons on our ‘slice of bread’ and the collision is strong enough, some of the debris can be ejected off our slice of bread, and you can notice if this happened by a loss of energy in the output,” Greene said. Such tests could begin when the Large Hadron Collider restarts in 2015.

The simulated multiverse

One of the wildest multiverse concepts begins with the idea that our universe is actually just a computer simulation. It sounds like the premise for “The Matrix,” but the question of whether our world is just a fantasy is ancient, dating back at least to Chinese philosopher Zhuangzi, who more than 2,000 years ago described waking from a dream unsure of whether he was a man who dreamed he was a butterfly or a butterfly dreaming that he was a man.

In 2003, philosopher Nick Bostrom, director of the Future of Humanity Institute at the University of Oxford, posed a modern take on this ancient contemplation of the true nature of reality. He estimated it would take 1036 calculations in total—a 1 with 36 zeroes behind it—to create a simulation of the whole of human history that was indistinguishable from reality, and that a planet-sized computer based on current electronics might conceivably perform 1042 operations per second.

Simulating every person who has ever lived might only take a tiny fraction of an advanced civilization’s resources, Bostrom reasoned. In that case, the number of computer-generated people and other entities within simulations could vastly outnumber all the real minds that have ever lived. By this logic, the odds are that we all are simulated, not real. In turn, it may be possible that our simulators are themselves simulated, and their simulators are simulated, and so on.

Seems rock-solid, right? The problem, says Greene, “is that it’s very hard to imagine falsifying the simulated multiverse notion — even if we can find out we are simulated, the simulator can erase that memory if they wanted, so any proof that the universe is simulated would go away. There are a number of physicists who nod to this idea as a mind-bending curiosity, but it’s not going to affect our day-to-day lives or work.”

Beyond reach?

We may never find proof that other universes exist. But even if we could, there is virtually no known way to reach them.

Scientists have speculated that wormholes, “shortcuts” in space and time, might allow one to reach other universes. However, wormholes may not actually exist, and even if they do, it might not be possible to traverse them. “It’d be lovely go get into a spaceship to go through a wormhole to travel back and forth to other universes, but it doesn’t look to me like the equations will allow us to do so,” said theoretical physicist Leonard Susskind at Stanford University.

Even if we can never travel to another universe, that does not mean we are alone. “Even in our single lonely universe, there is a gargantuan number of opportunities for life to exist,” Greene said. “The many discoveries of extrasolar planets are thrilling, and that may lead one to seriously consider that there may be other life forms out there in our universe.”

Go Deeper
Editor’s picks for further reading

FQXi: Philosophy of the Multiverse
In this essay, discover why many theorists are drawn to the idea that our universe is just one among many.

NOVA: Parallel Worlds, Parallel Lives
Discover web resources associated with NOVA’s “Parallel Worlds, Parallel Lives,” a film about the life and work of Hugh Everett III.

The Hidden Reality
Brian Greene’s 2011 book asks whether our universe is the only universe.

Video Credits

Produced, animated, and edited by Greg Kestin

Editorial help from Kate Becker, Anna Rothschild, and Lauren Aguirre

A special thanks to Andrew Friedman

Original Footage
© WGBH Educational Foundation 2014


Night Music, Air Prelude, Not as it Seems, and Comfortable Mystery 3 by Kevin MacLeod ( CC By 3.0

Bicep2: Courtesy of National Science Foundation
Big Bang, Galaxies, and Cosmic Web: Courtesy of NASA


Many physicists believe there is a strong connection between the inflationary multiverse and an important feature of string theory; for more see:

Although there is not yet evidence favoring the quantum multiverse over several other interpretations of quantum mechanics, it is still consistent with the results of every quantum experiment ever conducted.

Tell us what you think on Twitter, Facebook, or email.


Charles Choi

    Charles Q. Choi has written for Scientific American, The New York Times, Wired, Science and Nature, among others. In his spare time, he has traveled to all seven continents, including scaling the side of an iceberg in Antarctica, investigating mummies from Siberia, snorkeling in the Galapagos, climbing Mt. Kilimanjaro, camping in the Outback, avoiding thieves near Shaolin Temple and hunting for mammoth DNA in Yukon.


    Greg Kestin

      Greg Kestin holds a faculty position at Harvard University, where he conducts theoretical physics research, teaches, and produces educational online content. He earned his physics Ph.D. from Harvard, as a member of The Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, focusing on theoretical particle physics and quantum field theory. Over his career, he has also conducted research in nuclear physics, fusion energy, and gravitational wave physics. For over a decade he has been involved with innovative educational outreach endeavors, bringing science to both students and members of the public through his writings, videos, lectures, and multimedia.

      • ben cruz

        I am quite content with the present universe. Whether it is a part of a multiverse is irrelevant relative to me. In fact, I am quite happy about Newtonian Physics.

        • APEppink

          Your GPS wouldn’t work absent modifications necessitated by relativity. Your outlook is too limited.

          • ben cruz

            APEppink, I am saying that I am quite happy about Newtonian Physics rather than String Theory which cannot be confirmed experimentally.

            • APEppink

              You’re right. Much of modern physics isn’t experimentally verifiable, hence not really science, just educated conjecture. Hopefully at least indirectly verifible experimental methods will arise which can verify, disprove or modify all this modern conjecture.

              • Hominid

                Most is not “educated conjecture” – it’s rank speculation.

      • dpm

        If you only knew how many bubbles there are and how often they are traveled to and from. The correct answer is yes it is

        • Godless and Happier that way

          Careful my friend, don’t give away the answers. They need to find out the truth for themselves, or they won’t believe it.

      • McAdoo Buzzsaw

        I do not believe I am part of a gigantic computer simulation. “I THINK; THEREFORE I AM.” Rene Descartes

        • KeithTang

          You are because the Great Programmer that created you (or more technically, the world that beget you) has given you “free will”.

        • Hominid

          You are, therefore you think . . . maybe.

      • Stephen Ma

        So please do not say that there is no heaven no God, we are too small and ignorant and …

        • Grumpy Old Fart

          I’m an agnostic. I don’t believe I am capable of understanding the true nature of God… and I don’t think you know either, as the saying goes.

          That said, I suspect there is something… the universe (whether one or many) is such a perfectly interlocking pattern on all observable levels that I just can’t buy the idea of it occuring by random chance. I mean sheesh, random chance can’t account for the existence of random chance, so I don’t accept it as evidence for anything else.

          I believe in miracles… but then, miracles rather lose their impact when there’s half a million of them growing in your front yard, and every other week you break out the lawnmower and hack them all down. So far as I can see, a blade of grass is neither more nor less of a miracle than a Y’Shua ha Notzri, a newborn baby, or me or you. They are all things that if you support the “random chance” explanation fall into the “mathematically impossible” end of the scale. So the bottom line for me is that it doesn’t scare me or bother me to say I don’t know.

          But then, that’s the beauty of being mortal. I don’t have to know, I don’t have to believe, and I don’t have to guess. There is only one ironclad promise I get from life, and that is that if I wait around long enough, I’ll get the chance to see for myself.

          To be perfectly honest, I’m kinda looking forward to that.

          Look into the hearts
          Of those who knew me.
          There, for good or ill,
          You will find my monument.
          This? This is a rock.
          (c)2014 Sam Orton

          • KeithTang

            You and your universe CAN occur through random chance…..IF there was enough possibilities around. For example, if the “quantum universe” idea turned out to be the real idea for your universe’s existence, then it was possible because in an infinite number of possible universes, there has to be ONE universe (even as small as the chance may be, say 1 in a quintillion or something) where conditions are just right to allow lifeforms like you to exist.

            • Grumpy Old Fart

              Yes… but the odds of it happening are easily as ridiculous as the supposition that something created all this on purpose.

              “then it was possible because in an infinite number of possible universes, there has to be ONE universe (even as small as the chance maybe, say 1 in a quintillion or something)”

              No, there doesn’t have to be. There is a 50/50 chance that any time you flip a coin, you’ll get heads, but it’s still possible to flip a coin a million times and get tails every time.

              I suppose I’m guilty of sloppy phrasing. It’s not mathematically impossible, it’s just mathematically ridiculous.

              • KeithTang

                Yes, it’s possible for your coin flip analogy to happen too. You could get a million tails in a row. Just like the person who buys a single powerball ticket has roughly a 1 in a 175,000,000 chance of hitting the jackpot. S/he thinks s/he’ll never win, but decides to try his/her luck anyway, then s/he turns out to be the winner: 1 / 175,000,000 chance of winning. According to you, it’s not purely random chance that this particular version of the person, living within this particular quantum state (possibility), hit the jackpot, right ?

              • Grumpy Old Fart

                “According to you, it’s not purely random chance that this particular version of the person, living within this particular quantum state (possibility), hit the jackpot, right ?”

                It could be. Then again, it could be “the power of prayer.” In the absence of other evidence, to assume either appears about equally ridiculous to me.

              • Hominid

                It is, in fact, not random chance in any meaningful sense. Probability is a tool that let’s us guess about the likelihood of an event until the outcome is known, at which time, probability has no meaning.

            • Matthew Mccorry

              Physicists are confounded and suspicious of formulas that produce infinity as a result. They reject them and continue to look deeper into the problem they are confronted with until they find a way around infinity, then they understand where they went wrong. There is 0% chance that infinity is an answer.

              • Godless and Happier that way

                That’s not quite correct. The universe/multiverse could be infinite. Just because we can’t wrap our heads around “infinty” doesn’t limit the natural world. Besides, if it is not infinite, what happens at it’s edge? What lies beyond that edge? Nothingness? A neighboring multiverse? An infinity of them?

              • Matthew Mccorry

                All previous attempts to answer a question with it’s infinite have fallen by the wayside with actual finite answers, macro and micro. While I can’t prove that infinity doesn’t exist, I can prove that over time whenever we thought it might, it didn’t. Your questions are beyond the scope of science, theory is another matter and not to be relied upon as science. In time perhaps we’ll answer them, the answer won’t be infinity.

              • Hominid

                The multiverse concept is utterly stupid. If there were other universes, they simply would be part of a grander universe.

              • Hominid

                That’s testament to the inadequacy of maths, not the unreality of the infinite.

          • Stephen Ma

            I am just off duty and have had dinner.

            I understand the true nature of God from the oldest book bible which recorded words of God, so you can. Jesus said that those who believe in him can go to heaven where there is no sin.

            You said that you believe in miracles. Try to believe in Jesus so
            that your life can experience miracles. In the times of Jesus, many people had seen Jesus who made miracles which cannot make all of them to believe in Jesus. It is because when you are accustomed to it, miracles became usual things.

            Same to now, we get used to the environmental protection water cycle in natural so that we regard it as natural but not miracle. Who designs this biggest environmental protection water cycle (water –>water vapour–>cloud–>rain) as well as food-chain cycle? Do not say that it is by random.

            Believe in the existence of God or not is not important. Main point is to know that Jesus sacrificed himself for our sins.; no sin or no peace.

            • Grumpy Old Fart

              “…the oldest book bible which recorded words of God…”

              Perhaps so. I’m not a Hebrew scholar, so I don’t know what the Bible actually says, I only know what various translators claim it says. As may be, stipulating that it is the words of God, nonetheless, those words are set down and repeated by humans. If you’re old enough to have kids, you’re bound to have noticed that humans are gullible, prone to lie, and very willing to deny any reality that challenges their preconceptions. Moreover, there’s a strong tendency for what you said to bear little if any resemblance to what they heard.

              That’s not to say that I don’t think the Bible has nothing of value in it. It’s a very good book, full of very good lessons on how to be a civilized person. But I don’t have to stipulate that it is the word of God in order to come to that conclusion. On the other hand, if I stipulate the existence of a superior entity whose wisdom is not limited by time and space, I come up with some rather odd inconsistencies. I mean, presuming God knew in advance what would be made of His words…. the most glaring example I can think of is that I have trouble buying the idea that the God described in the Bible was okay with people taking His lessons and turning out stuff like the Inquisition. And yet, presumably He saw that one coming.

              “Try to believe in Jesus so that your life can experience miracles.”

              But it does anyway. Every sunrise, every sunset, every starry night, every cloud, every tree, every look of joy on someone’s face.

              “Do not say that it is by random.”

              I don’t know. I don’t claim to know. And that doesn’t bother me.

              “Main point is to know that Jesus sacrificed himself for our sins.”

              I know others claim that of him. But what I know for certain is that he got nailed to a board basically for suggesting that we should be nice to each other. That’s people for you. But the people who did that are the same species, subject to the same drives and with the same weaknesses, as the people who wrote down what is now considered “God’s word.”

              And really, that’s my underlying problem with the whole concept of Christianity. I don’t think “my sins” are anyone’s responsibility but my own. From what I hear, God’s a very forgiving guy. But that’s not good enough for me. I want the forgiveness of the guy I see in the mirror, which is much harder than it sounds.

              • Stephen Ma

                All problems about human life can be found in the bible. Type the brief wording in some web of bible to get the answer by God’s words.

                Please read some famous God’s words below :
                (John 14:6) :
                Jesus said to him, I am the true and living way: no
                one comes to the Father but by me.
                (John 13:34) :
                I give you a new law: Have love one for another; even
                as I have had love for you, so are you to have love one for another.
                (Matthew 16:26) :
                For what profit has a man, if he gets all the
                world with the loss of his life? or what
                will a man give in exchange for his life?

                Your comments are fair..
                May God bless you and USA too.

            • Hominid


          • Hominid

            Death is not a learning experience.

            • Grumpy Old Fart

              That depends on whether or not there is such a thing as a “spirit” or “soul” that survives the death of the body, does it not?

              So again, it boils down to whether or not you are scared of not knowing.

              • Hominid


          • Seeker

            So what made a beginner? The God thing had to begin from nothing so why not all the rest just coming from nothing as well and just leave out the Maker? What makes you think you will know upon your death when the “you” won’t be there to know anyway? This opens up another paradox as well in that the “you” is likely an illusion developed and manifested by your physical brain and doesn’t exist without that brain .
            It doesn’t take much scholarship to conclude the religions of the world are man made memes perpetuated by ignorant primitive thinking and greedy control freaks. Cheers!

        • Bill Book

          That’s part of the problem. There may BE a god–and god may be some pimple-pocked teenager playing SimUniverse in 2715.

          • Stephen Ma

            It is a big problem that why lives can only be found in our earth? There must be a reason because God created lives on our earth according to the bible.

            We still cannot find life in the huge universe or in the much huge muti-universe.

            • rotfogel

              You speak of ‘God’ as if you actually know. You don’t, you only believe you do. There’s a significant difference.

              • Stephen Ma

                Anyway, I experience God all the time. I found that all things said in the bible are amazing true!!!

                For example Noah,s ark which was always ridiculed as a a
                fairy tale was found in year 2005 by Hong Kong Christians. I am sure Jesus is our true Lord 100%!!!

              • Stephen Ma

                Can withstand any aspect of the attack, is not
                overthrown, does not violate the advanced scientific principles, and place the characters mentioned in the year are consistent with the history and geography archeology, philosophy of life beyond truth philosophers, modern
                democratic spirit, the words can heal the broken hearts and the emptiness, fulfilled the prophecy of 99%, super Noah’s Ark has been found structural wood…The oldest book sales have become a long-term winner today. There is nothing else like Masterpieces Bible because it is God’s Word! Miracle!
                Bible open at the beginning of the universe, God created the heavens, the creation of all
                things and humans, God and human beings communicate with each other’s history, God’s
                son born as human was crucified and died for human sin then resurrection and ascension, the history of Christianity, as well as future doomsday prophecy, description of new world afterwards…

          • Grumpy Old Fart

            Okay now that’s scary.

            Put’s a whole new skid on the idea of “fearing” God, doesn’t it?

      • casey

        “Its not like we come up with these crazy ideas and try to shove them into our theories…”

        1) Java man: Initially discovered by Dutchman Eugene Dubois in 1891, all that was found of this claimed originator of humans was a skullcap, three teeth and a femur. The femur was found 50 feet away from the original skullcap a full year later. For almost 30 years Dubois downplayed the Wadjak skulls (two undoubtedly human skulls found very close to his “missing link”). (source: Hank Hanegraaff, The Face That Demonstrates The Farce Of Evolution, [Word Publishing, Nashville, 1998], pp.50-52)

        2) Piltdown man: Found in a gravel pit in Sussex England in 1912, this fossil was considered by some sources to be the second most important fossil proving the evolution of man—until it was found to be a complete forgery 41 years later. The skull was found to be of modern age. The fragments had been chemically stained to give the appearance of age, and the teeth had been filed down!

        3)Nebraska man: A single tooth, discovered in Nebraska in 1922 grew an entire evolutionary link between man and monkey, until another identical tooth was found which was protruding from the jawbone of a wild pig.

        4)There is also Lucy
        6) Neanderthal
        All were hoaxes and a direct result of coming up with a theory and than trying to mislead the non scientific community (and scientific community) by coming up with a crazy scheme and trying to “shove it into their theories.”
        Get a clue folks…science is no longer science and definitely no longer ethical.

        • rhadagastt

          Jeez, sounds like another scam going on right now. You know the one about how hot its supposed to be getting?

          • casey

            At least I am stating facts…

      • A

        I can not see, feel or experience but for you, which are of me. Your joy, your pain, your wonder, equally give purpose.

      • Tony Budz

        Black holes, Tornado’s, Aquatic vortexes they all go somewhere.

      • Richard Amodeo

        The bible says that there multiple realms of existence but I realize that most people do not believe in the bible and think it is fiction however I and other people do believe. I think that there is never going to be a way to prove such a thing however it is at least good for conversation.

        • rotfogel

          The bible is not the book to reference on such matters. In fact in any scientific matter the bible is never a good choice to reference.

          • Metaphysical questions aren’t for science to answer actually. Science deals with the physical, not with what exists outside of nature, or what came before nature, or the big question of “why”. That’s where religion and philosphy come in. Even the idea of a multiverse is more of a metaphysical question than a scientific one, unless all other universes have the exact same laws of nature (which defeats the primary purpose of postulating a multiverse in the first place). Otherwise science, which is based on observation of nature within our universe, cannot prove it one way or the other, anymore than it can prove God or that existence is a computer simulation. Scientific observation and experimentation is bound to the laws of nature within our universe only.

            • Hominid

              Metaphysical questions are stupid and invite only delusion.

      • rusty

        Still the big question: why is there anything? And of course you have to wonder: are we really special or just fancy bugs?

        • Hominid

          Nothing to wonder about – we’re not special. Your “big question” is a stupid question that invites only delusion.

      • Patrick Fox

        First they took away Pluto, then the declared that Brontosaurus isn’t real. If the scientists try and take away the multiverse next then I’m hopping in a time machine and going to a parallel universe. I’ve had enough of this.

        • And feathers. They gave dinosaurs feathers. Could you imagine T-Rex being a giant chicken? It’s ridiculous.

          • rhadagastt

            Could you imagine what a bucket of KFC would look like during the Cretaceous?

        • RedStatePatriot


      • joe giardina

        I have assumed UFOs that seem to vanish in mid observation are shifting freely within a physical multiverse , in a way you would tune in a radio

      • rotfogel

        The Bible doesn’t say anything about a “MultiVerse” so this is all wrong. Never once does Jesus mention a ‘multiverse’.

        • Godless and Happier that way

          Your “Bible” doesn’t say anything about science, period. Any science. Even the ones average people can thoroughly understand, like the agricultural sciences. Yet both ancient and modern farmers have used the selective breeding of plants and animals for desired traits which then become standard for the new strain. This wouldn’t be possible if the science of genetics didn’t allow for it. When nature eliminates a sub strain of a certain animal from the gene pool because that animal’s genetic line contains a trait that makes it less competitive than the rest, it’s the same thing that’s happening. When nature decides to gradually quit producing deer with white patches in their coats through attrition. Because deer with white patches are easier for predators to see. Or, rancher Joe decides he wants his cattle to be brown ones and stops letting the herd bull inseminate cows with white patches on them. It’s the same force at work. When we do it we call it “selective breeding”, when nature does it, it’s called “natural selection”.

          Your story book may not have anything in it about quantum physics but that doesn’t mean atoms don’t exist. Or other universes. We atheists live. We ask questions. We find answers. We go where science takes us. It’s a journey of wonder that will show us many things for which we are unprepared, but that we must bravely accept. that’s the beauty of it. Join us, reality is wonderful.

          • Stephen Ma

            The Bible’s factual and scientific accuracy proves that it is the Word of God

            August 1, 2014

            The Bible is true not only in statements about man, but also in its statements about everything. Though the Bible is not a
            scientific manual, it is scientifically accurate, even from its earliest pages, which were written nearly 4,000 years ago.

            Creation is made of particles, invisible to our eyes (Hebrews 11:3). Atoms, and other invisible particles are part of everything
            made by God (John 1:3),(Colossians 1:16-17). The First three verses of Genesis accurately express the all known aspects of the Creation (Genesis 1:1-3).
            Science expresses the universe in terms of time, space, matter, and energy. So does the first three verses of Genesis Chapter one. “In the beginning (time)
            God created the heaven (space) and the earth (matter). …And God said, Let there be light (energy) and there was light”.

            The Earth is a sphere (Isaiah 40:22) and not flat like people thought. The Earth was designed for biological life (Isaiah 45:18). The Earth was given just the right amount of water to sustain life (Isaiah 40:12). Job describes the amazing hydrological cycle (evaporation, atmospheric circulation, condensation,
            precipitation, runoff) (Job 38:25-30). The process of evaporation and condensation was not discovered until the 17th century and not well understood until the 20th century.

            Our universe is expanding since the beginning (Job 9:8),(Isaiah 42:5), (Jeremiah 51:15),(Zechariah 12:1). The stars in the universe are unique. Each star varies in size and intensity (I Corinthians 15:4).

            Light can be divided (Job 38:24). A prism will divide white light into colors of the spectrum. Light can also be sent and manifest in speech (Job 38:35). Just look at the advancement of fiber optics technology.

            The Bible says there are paths in the sea (Isaiah 43:16), just like there are jet streams that circle the earth (Ecclesiastes 1:6). Since the 19th century the ocean currents or paths have been charted and ships travel these paths just as trucks travel on roads. Writing in the mid-1800s, Matthew Fontaine Maury,
            Superintendent of the U.S. Navy’s Depot of Charts and Instruments in Washington
            D.C., observed, “There is a river in the ocean : in the severest droughts it never fails, and in the mightiest floods it never overflows; its banks and its bottom are cold water, while its current is warm ; the Gulf of Mexico is its fountain, and its mouth is in the Arctic Seas. It is the Gulf Stream” (Maury, “The Physical Geography of the Sea, 6th edition, 1856, p. 25).

            The Bible says our bodies are made from the dust of the ground. (Genesis 2:7),(Genesis 3:19). The human body comprises of some 28 base and trace elements. All are found in the Earth. Life begins at conception (fertilization)(Jeremiah 1:5). Man is fearfully and wonderfully made (Psalm 139:14). God fashions us in the womb (Job 10: 8-12; 31:15). DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic blueprint that is in each and every cell (Psalm 139:13-16). Man is unique among the animal kingdom. Man is not an animal. Man has a conscience (Romans 2:14-15) and animals do not (Psalm 32:9).
            Man is God’s ultimate creation. Scientists cannot explain where man’s emotions came from. Matter and energy cannot create “emotions” such as joy, gladness, love, hate, laughter, pleasure, sadness, etc.. The Bible explains where they came from because God create them.

            The Bible says plants and animals reproduce after their kind (Genesis 1). This is in perfect harmony with everything that can be observed and tested by modern science. There is great variety within kinds, there is all sorts of different roses, frogs, dogs etc,, but there is no reproduction between kinds. A dog cannot breed with a cat to create cat-dog.

            The Bible is not a book of science, but wherever the Bible touches on science, it is accurate. This proves its divine origin, because all other ancient books are filled with scientific errors. Even science books just 100 years old are filled with errors

            Suggested by the author

        • Stephen Ma

          The third heaven stated in bible belongs to another universe where only Christians can go after death, so there are mutiuniverse. May be God lives in another universe.

          (Bible : Corinthians 2 ) : I have knowledge of a man in Christ, fourteen years back (if he was in the body, or out of the body, I am not able to say, but God only), who was taken up to the third heaven.

      • Don Baxley

        I could have told you that 50 years ago!

      • RickT

        Considering, all the recent discoveries about the Cosmos, thing’s that the “experts” used to think were IMPOSSIBLE, I’d say just about ANYTHING IS POSSIBLE,

      • Panoptes

        Wow, completely useless ideas here. My problem with theoretical physicist is when they go off the reservation and take to the public quack theories that have no basis of support besides the abstractions of mathematical models. These multiverse ideas are no more than exercises in math, they are NOT science. These different multiverse ideas do not have any direct evidence to back them nor do they, typically, make any predictions that can be reasonably tested or falsified. So, in the end, useless. In my own opinion, it’s a bad idea to take untestable ideas based only on mathematical conjectures into the public discourse and pass them off as legitimate scientific inquiry.

        • Hominid

          Nice to see that someone gets it. Maths can be the ultimate delusion.

          • Panoptes

            Exactly! A self-delusion, in fact. “Oh, oh, there’s this stuff that we know nothing about that shapes the universe called dark matter! You can’t see it because it’s not *ordinary* matter. But the math works so it must

            Give me a break.

            I have read many of your comments over the ‘blogosphere’, Hominid, and know how very rare a compliment or even agreement is from you. Of course, you are mostly surrounded by morons in cyberspace. So, I am honored, indeed.

      • Dynan3

        Buddha observed the magnanimity of the universe and it’s infinite nature by becoming so subtle that all the laws of the universe were revealed. It was a scientific inquiry, with no concept accepted until it was verified by experience. He left a perfect “How To” manual to all that cared to make the supreme effort of looking within and stopping the apparent confusion. Until we all make the same effort, there is no one that can refute his discoveries.
        BTW, he also perceived physical consciousness at the human level (also above and below that level) outside our galaxy.

      • seescaper

        The only reason why “multiverses” have come into favor is that there is simply no other way to explain how fine-tuned our universe is to support life, without invoking intelligent design, which is anathema for a scientist, as it is inherently unscientific. But even if the chance of a universe to support life is 1 in a trillion trillion, that objection can be overcome simply by invoking the existence of a trillion trillion universes. After all, someone has to win the lottery, right? But the other way out of the dilemma would be if it could be shown that by first principles a universe supporting life is the only stable configuration possible. To do that we must be able to derive all that we see from these first principles. a model that takes us in that direction, but is as of yet incomplete, is that of NASA physicist Dr. Milo Wolff, the WSM theory, derived from several postulates about the nature of spacetime. all of relativity, quantum mechanics, etc. derives form these postulates. This can be googled by googling “beyond the point particle” with “Milo Wolff” for a fuller discussion.

        • The problem is that it is considered a dilemma at all. In science, a dilemma or a paradox should come about when two observations do not match; where both cannot be true and either an explanation is required or an observation reevaluated. But this isn’t about two observations, this is about a set of observations that all agree that the universe is “fine tuned” for life and matter as we know it conflicting with the personal views of many scientists that the universe cannot be fine tuned because that means design. In other words, they are letting their personal beliefs get in the way of accepting the observations at face value and letting philosophy and religion tackle the ramifications of that which are not within the purview of science. Dogma is bad for science, no matter what form it takes.

      • CHEMST

        When I consider the differences between the way this new group of theoretical physicists, led by Greene, operate and how the ones that developed quantum mechanics and relativity operated, one thing becomes clear. In the past, failures of the current theory drove the development of new theories that in order to be accepted had to explain with experimental testing, at least parts of the phenomena that drove their development. In the present, failures of existing theory have driven the development of theories, which cannot at present be tested. Unlike the past, failure to experimentally confirm the theory does not deter its developers from advancing the consequences of their untested theories as the accepted model of the Universe in the popular media.

      • Sarcosuchus

        The Brane Multiverse would be very hard to prove considering the fact that we live in a 4 dimensional world: up and down, front and back, side to side, and real time. The human mind can’t interpret the idea of what the other 6 dimensions would be because the human imagination and knowledge is very limited to what has been noticed, observed, and recorded.

        • Hominid

          That’s right. The human mind evolved as a survival strategy suited to existence on planet Earth. There has been no selection pressure for unlimited acumen. In fact, the opposite is the norm and it’s easily shown that the experiences of the mind are illusional.

          • Sarcosuchus

            So you say that the pressure of survival has never led man to discover these other dimensions, and you readily assume that the other dimensions are not required for our level of survival, when the truth may be that those other dimensions may be even better for human survival than the four that we live in.

      • Kevin

        I believe that there is no beginning and no end; time is infinite. We live in a multiverse which is growing in some polarized matter. God doesn’t exist and we live only one life here and now; not then and there. We are special and that there are no other humans like us on our unique Earth. Wormholes, time travel, teleportation, exceeding the speed of light, and living in a nonphysical environment are all possible. Even our existence and whereabouts are one of the endless questions to be answered someday. In summary, our understanding of math and science need to be more advanced in order to discover these anomalies.