Thought Experiments

28
May

Searching for Advanced Alien Engineering

Picture this: You’re the emperor of an advanced alien civilization. For millions of years, your planet’s engineers have been building bigger and better gadgets: supercomputers, spaceships, flying cars, that sort of thing. All this ultra-tech makes life pretty fantastic, but it takes a lot of energy. Where is all that energy going to come from?

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Image by Flickr user longan drink, adapted under a Creative Commons license

In 1937, the science fiction writer Olaf Stapledon imagined one answer: an enormous, spherical solar collector, built to encircle an energy-hungry civilization’s home star like a giant mylar balloon. This hypothetical mega-structure would grab every last photon of sunlight, providing enough energy to run whatever future technologies engineers could dream up. In 1960, physicist Freeman Dyson fleshed out the scheme: instead of a giant balloon, he speculated, an advanced civilization might crumble up its solar system’s uninhabited planets to create a swarm of rocks that could gather solar energy more efficiently. Dyson also pointed out that, if such a sphere or swarm existed, it would look to us like an unusually dark star, radiating waste heat in the infrared.

“Dyson spheres,” as they’re called (to Dyson’s chagrin), have become sci-fi staples. But they have also gotten some (semi) serious attention from scientists searching for evidence of intelligent life beyond Earth. In two studies, published in 2004 and 2008, Richard Carrigan, a researcher at Fermilab, searched for lopsided, infrared-heavy spectra among some quarter-million infrared sources in a database amassed by the IRAS satellite. IRAS, launched in 1983, surveyed about 96% percent of the sky. The result: no Dyson spheres–or, at least, none that he could confidently distinguish from other potential lookalikes.

If a civilization is sophisticated enough to build a Dyson sphere around one star, though, why should it stop there? Why not outfit a whole galaxy with Dyson spheres? As Jason Wright, assistant professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State, wrote:

Consider a space-faring civilization that can colonize nearby stars in ships that travel at “only” 0.1% the speed of light (our fastest spacecraft travel at about 1/10 this speed). Even if they stop for 1,000 years at each star before launching ships to colonize the next nearest stars, they will still spread to the entire galaxy in 100 million years, which is 1/100 of the age of the Milky Way.

That is, an advanced civilization can fan out across its home galaxy pretty quickly, cosmically speaking, and a galaxy overrun with Dyson spheres and other energy-collecting super-structures would have a global surplus of mid-infrared radiation. With that in mind, Wright and his colleagues have been searching for evidence of such supercivilizations by looking for galaxies whose spectra skew to the infrared. Their campaign, called Glimpsing Heat from Alien Technologies Survey (G-HAT), scoured some 100 million objects observed by NASA’s Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite. In a paper published in April, lead author Roger Griffith reported that, from all those millions, they found 50 galaxies showing infrared excesses that could maybe, possibly be due to alien technology–but, far more likely, are due to natural astrophysical processes. (Incidentally, as Lee Billings reported in Scientific American, the G-HAT team wasn’t able to secure funding from the usual government sources; their work is supported by a grant from the private Templeton Foundation.)

Things may be looking a little bleak for Dyson spheres—and intelligent ET in general, if you’re guided by the Fermi paradox—but there’s some consolation from a pair of researchers in Turkey, who point out that alien engineers might not choose to put their Dyson spheres around sunlike stars in the first place. Instead, they argue, superintelligent engineers would build their Dyson spheres around dim stellar embers called white dwarfs. These mini-Dyson spheres would be all-but undetectable.

Why white dwarfs? First, they’re cooler than stars like the sun, so, assuming that you want to live on or near the Dyson sphere and that you don’t want to be burned to a crisp, a Dyson sphere should be placed much closer to a white dwarf than to a sun-like star. That means that the sphere itself could be a lot smaller and, potentially, easier to build.

Meanwhile, Zaza Osmanov, a researcher at the Free University of Tbilisi in Georgia, has proposed that super-advanced extraterrestrials might build Dyson spheres around pulsars, rapidly rotating neutron stars that emit focused beams of radiation from their poles. To capture this energy, you wouldn’t need an entire sphere: a smaller ring, coinciding with the path of the pulsar’s beam, would do the job.

It’s all extremely speculative, of course, and many would argue that searches for the signature of Dyson spheres, rings, and swarms are so unlikely to turn up any answers that they aren’t worth the computing time. But, as Wright puts it, there’s only one way to make a discovery: “You gotta look.”

Go Deeper
Editor’s picks for further reading

NOVA: Eavesdropping on ET
In this NOVA podcast, SETI astronomer Seth Shostak explains why he thinks it’s just a matter of time before we find evidence of other intelligent life in the universe.

Popular Mechanics: Cosmic Megastructures
Read up on the engineering challenges behind imagined cosmic megastructures, including Dyson spheres, space colonies, and more.

SETI Institute: SETI 101
A short history of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, with links to more information on the Fermi paradox and the social implications of a confirmed detection.

Tell us what you think on Twitter, Facebook, or email.

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Kate Becker

    Kate Becker is the editor of The Nature of Reality, where it is her mission to blow your mind with physics. Kate studied physics at Oberlin College and astronomy at Cornell University, and spent seven years as senior researcher for NOVA and NOVA scienceNOW. Follow her on Twitter and Facebook.

    • Cynic Jim

      But if they had political infighting and budget cut to there space programs they probably would have used up all of their own resources and perished before the first ship left the planet.

    • Jim Lynch

      Fermi’s question is still valid today.Where are they? If the assumption that life is a spontaneous occurance is valid,then Fermi’s question is valid.

      • Richard SF

        We just haven’t seen them yet. What we see of distant stars is not what is happening right now but what was happening in the past.

      • visibleunderwater

        perhaps they have been programmed by their original creators to avoid systems that contain biological life. They could have even been made to not come closer than a few hundred light years…the “Cosmic Zoo” theory.

      • Sean Boe

        If they are there they may or may not be aware of us. If they are they likely will not contact us anytime soon. Simply because we cannot get along with eachother on this planet what’s to say we would get along with a new species of intelligent life far more advanced than ourselves. Humans are not intelligent yet. We know a lot of stuff but we don’t fully understand it all as a society. It’s likely they exist without government or politics and instead have groups of specialists that are consulted for various projects. Once our wold comes together and realize that our petty differences actually mean nothing then they might reveal themselves and maybe even help us. The problem with this is that humans seem to assume that any intelligent life is going be just like us mentally. We will not make it to far if we keep living the way we do.

        • BlueBoomPony

          Shouldn’t you be at a drum circle or something?

      • BlueBoomPony

        Look up the inverse square law. That’s why we don’t hear anything. Aliens 60 LY away are NOT watching 50s earth sitcoms. That stuff doesn’t even get past Pluto in a detectable form. Even SETI gets this, and they look for deliberate attempts at communication.

        As for gigastructure engineering, they can make up all the imaginary technology they like, but they can’t wish it into reality. Maybe the energy spent in assembling a Dyson sphere just isn’t worth it. Maybe it’s impossible to keep stable- stars are violent objects. Maybe it’s just not doable.

        • Jim Lynch

          I think Fermi was on the right track.Their assumption that life is spontaneous is what is wrong, otherwise THEY would be here.With billions of earthlike planets in the universe, it can’t be otherwise.

    • General Tso

      A ‘Dyson sphere’ was also the basis for a great episode of Star Trek: TNG.

    • sidddhartha

      alien life may exsist

      • Infoczar

        Either it does or it doesn’t.

    • Lee Powell

      If not a Dyson sphere perhaps a ringworld, would have to ask a ringworld engineer.

      • Nunaya Dambizness

        Molly Ringworld? I loved her in “Sixteen Candles”!

    • David Hughes

      A ring would make more sense since it would follow the path of an orbiting planet (Ringworld).

      I’d say a good way to look for such a world/sphere/ring is to look for chewed up planets nearby since all that material to build it needs to come from someplace.

      • Go_FreeMarkets

        My thoughts as well. Although, if you figure out something like how to pump energy from vacuum, you would not need to bother with all this macro engineering.

    • EKMcM

      I watched a program on TV that shoed a clip of a planet sized object get real close to our sun for a while and then pulled away with a string of ??? attached then the ‘power’ string broke off and the object left the Sun went to who knows where. Alien power source ???

    • Donald Gracia

      What isn’t addressed is that developing technology also will make the gadgets more energy efficient. So super computers won’t require huge amounts of energy the way they do now, particularly when such devices employ nano-technology. Also because of environmental impacts from a developing technological society to sustain large populations energy efficiency is crucial for long term survival of such civilizations.

      The development of technology would also allow for the development of AI that would include the transition from a biological form to a more energy efficient nano-technology form. In fact the seductiveness of virtual reality as a life style choice is compelling, since the fulfillment of desire is much easier to manifest in a virtual world.

      So in reality, the ability to create virtual reality makes a society much more energy efficient since the transformation of energy to life style fulfillment is much more direct and taxes far less resources than trying to fulfill the same life style in a real world.

      In so many words the energy foot print of a very advanced society would actually be far less than what our current energy consumption is to support 6 billion. So much more efficient that populations approaching trillions (that is virtual personas, meaning literally reproducing in virtual reality) is possible.

      • Go_FreeMarkets

        Perhaps. But energy is almost unlimited, and can be used to enable an awful lot of cleverness that was not obvious a short time prior. Our species’ internet comprises an estimated 2% of the global energy output – and growing. To be satisfied living in virtual reality, we might demand a holodeck, with in situ matter-energy conversion, etc. Even aliens might be subject to the pattern of consuming all available resources.

    • Sean Boe

      1. We are pushing our current mentality onto another imaginary species of intelligent life. Projecting is all we are doing instead of objectivly thinking.
      2. For an advanced civilization to exist they would not live the way we do. There would be no capitalism. All the necessities for life would be provided to every citizen for free, because they can with their advanced technology. Something that we could do today but capitalism and a lack of genral social intelligence.
      3. they would most likely harness the natural energy of the planet first before trying for a star. Which is something we could be doing today but don’t, again, because of capitalism and general lack of social intelligence. By the time they figure out how to harness the energy from a star it is unlikely to be something that will encapsulate a star. Most likely that type of energy collection would only be useful to spaceships and stations.
      4. Buildind a super structure around any star would be risky and it would be more of a wast of resources if it couldn’t withstand the heat or other complications that could arise, not to mention the possibility of it being hit by some comet or asteroid.

      • Donald Gracia

        Your arguments of what can be done today is wrong. Just on the basis of the lack of population control in most countries of the world your belief of the necessities of life are unrealistic. Not only that but what is necessary for life? A cubical with running water, a septic system and 2000 calories to sustain life?

      • CastleOfCheese

        Perhaps I’m projecting, but without something resembling capitalism, where would all of this innovation and technology come from?

        • Sean Boe

          go learn about the venus project. http://Www.thevenusproject.com

        • Sean Boe

          What incentive did the person that invented the wheel have?

          • MarkinGermany

            He got his stuff moved faster and easier than his competition.
            Please tell me you’re playing dense on purpose?

      • Go_FreeMarkets

        You seem to view capitalism as some kind of dysfunction. I view it as a planetary neural network that makes billions of decisions per second based on trillions of pieces of information at at time. It is our greatest invention, and has driven progress at an astonishing pace.

        • Sean Boe

          It’s fine when people aren’t hoarding it and using it responsibly but that is not the case anymore. But stuff is produced so cheaply most of what your paying for is just the name, that goes for name brand. But having multiple companies doing the same things is really just a waste of our natural resources. Don’t you think all the companies that make tv could come together and make the best set they could, think about how cheap it would be, being the best and the only. I’m sure it’d be available in,any size as well. Innovation and invention will pick up at a much faster pace because there wouldn’t be money, so people won’t have to work for it. If you really looked at our society objectivly you would see many inconsistencies. Mainly on how we waste food while having hungry people around simply because they can’t afford it. We need to think more like humans than programed machines.

          • MarkinGermany

            Yet you haven’t sold your computer in order to buy
            starving people food. Do I sense hypocrisy?

            • dearth_vader

              No, you don’t have to. It’s right out in the open for you to see.

      • BlueBoomPony

        1. All geeks do this. They assume they personally have figured out how alien life (that might see in infrared and speak with scents for all we know) with a million more years of sapience will think.
        2. See #1
        3. See #1.
        4. Yeah, because comets or asteroids hitting a planet is such a trivial matter (ask the dinosaurs), and a species able to build a star englobing sphere of what are effectively asteroids will be utterly undone by a single stray one. And it will be capitalisms fault.

        And then an insectoid race attacks earth with their rigid caste system, hypercapitalistic economy, multiple slave races from other conquests, and leaders chosen by how many of their own young they have eaten as disciplinary actions to the others. Oops.

        Dyson’s sophistication of the concept was that it’s not a solid structure. You probably can’t build a solid structure because the stresses on such a thing require materials that only exist in science fiction. Ringworld by Larry Niven addresses this issue. A theoretical material with the right strength parameters would likely violate the laws of physics.

        This is pretty typical geek think. “The aliens are out there, and have the same tired ideology I do!”

        • Sean Boe

          You seem to know a lot but you seem to lack intelligence. I don’t identify with any groups. You might want to learn objectivity.

      • naturalist469

        why is that the country (countries) that are consistently on the cutting edge of technology based on capitalism and the freedom to transact your affairs in the way you see fit ? I’m afraid your comments are gibberish.

        • Sean Boe

          You are stuck in that mentality, that is why you can’t see beyond capitalism. It’s not your fault your just a product of your upbringing. If really wanted to you could come out of it but it’s up yo you.

          • MarkinGermany

            And you are stuck on stupid. We all have our problems and I’m glad I don’t share yours.

            • Sean Boe

              That’s denial.

      • Infoczar

        Actually – capitalism is the only system that has any hope of providing for everyone. Your logic is so flawed I can’t believe you spent so much time writing that stuff. ha ha ha

        • Sean Boe

          Then you know very little about reality. You can grow your own food right? And with today’s tech you could grow a lot more than people once could.

          • Infoczar

            Look . . . your silly cult is only for the mentally deficient and spiritually / emotionally needy. Think McFly – who do you think will program the computers in your little wonderland ? – bureaucracy happens wether you like it or not – your “idea” has been tried and failed – they just called it communism. Stop being a dupe and learn a valuable skill for crying out loud – we are tired of carrying your lazy rear end around.

            • Sean Boe

              Your the one who is silly because your stuck in the bubble built around you and you can’t see past that. One could say your not we’ll enough educated to understand it. People that are actual experts in the area of programming would do it. You should study a bit more. Start with human behavior.

            • Infoczar

              lol – Ok – human behavior – you greedy little bastard. Think about it. Why do you think black markets have existed in EVERY society/culture that EVER existed or will exist? Ruminate on that for a little while – or forever – then come back and tell me how capitalism can be eliminated. It is just a different name for human instinct or human nature. Some might call it survival and adaptation – it is just competition. The least educated societies and the most educated societies – EVERY last one for freaking ever! You can leverage it or try to pretend it away (which is your backward and hamstrung idea). Now that you know you could not be more wrong (and deluded by some slick cult with recycled failed ideas) go do some reading on complex adaptive systems – you have so much to learn sooooo much. It would take years (literally years even if you were open minded) to educate you. Information wants to be alive and it has you by the balls. Maybe you can read some JB Say or for the less educated (you) watch a few Milton Friedman youtubes. Don’t respond until you have a modicum of education though you freakin’ dupe.

            • Sean Boe

              You have a group of 5 people with 1,000 apples, what’s the point in selling them to eachother? It’s already been observed in a human culture that when human needs have been provided for in abundance they don’t use money, they worked together and shared everything. Your a product of your environment. That’s why you think the way you do. Why didn’t you take up some other occupation? I’m sure you have an idea but you probably don’t question it.

            • Infoczar

              You have proven incapable of learning a damn thing. Again – start with non-linear dynamics and systems theory then work your way toward information theory. You can start with something easy like Wilson’s On Human Nature. As soon as you are able to fully understand you are nothing more than a vehicle for information you will have made the first step. Educate yourself . . . then we will talk.

            • Sean Boe

              Humans are shaped by their environment. Your arrogance is why you don’t seem to understand. Human nature is meaningless unless you mean human behavior. Your not a vehicle for information because it doesn’t matter at all. It doesn’t matter if our species survives into the future or not. Nothing matters at all and never will matter. It’s you that fails to understand reality. Have fun in your delusional world where stuff seems to matter. I don’t need to read other people’s work to understand life. People are so deluded because most lack real intelligence. I’m guessing you don’t understand intelligence either and just take what was put out by people from a previous time. “Any fool can know something, the point is to understand.”

            • Sean Boe

              BTW if capitalism was so great why are they always talking about having to create jobs? Why are there homeless and starving people? Your the lazy one since you seem to understand very little of what’s real in this world.

      • PsyphurrLock

        I don’t mean to bring politics into the discussion, but reading your comments and continued insults to everyone who disagrees with you places you firmly in the lib camp. There is no right or wrong answer here. Ideas only. Learn to have a conversation or exit the discussion. You bring only hate and discontent. Pass.

        • Sean Boe

          Label me what you want but liberals are just as stupid as the conservatives. I hope you enjoy that coin your on because the reality is, it doesn’t matter. That’s something to think about, why does it matter, keep following when you say it masters because of this, well, why does that matter? Keep going on like that.

          I’m not insulting anyone. I’m speaking truth. The fact that you took it as insulting is on you because that is how you think. Now if you were a bit more intelligent you would have asked me to clarify what I meant by that. This is how I know people are not that intelligent. We know people interpret things differently so why do you think you understand what is meant when I speak? In other words, since people interpret things differently doest that mean that people have different meanings for words. So instead of assuming you understand why I’ve done what I’ve done or said what I said maybe you could ask more questions and try to better understand my view. If

          I don’t want to converse, I want people to start actually thinking. If people actually understood life and nature they wouldn’t be saying the things they say. Most of the time it’s because they are missing information and assume that what they know is all.

    • Joel Lee

      Needs more Lovecraftian horror.

      We humans are looking in the wrong direction. We’re not looking for aliens, we’re looking for a mirror image, something we can relate to. We’re looking for things with flesh and blood, with bodies that can be seen. We’re looking for something that thinks too much like us, with little concern that the alien’s desires are more adapted to the environment they live in. We’re looking for beings that live within our plane of existence, our flow of time, our train of thought. We’re looking for something we can beat with a stick, to satiate our vanity. We’re looking for the known, when we should be looking for the unknown and unknowable.

      Look beyond the stars and into the cosmos. Look beyond the space and time that create the physical plane, and into the connections that allow thoughts and dreams to exist. See not with the eyes of your body, but the eyes of your mind.

      Aside from that, do consider the ultimate logic of advanced aliens. By the time they figured ways to warp space-time, would they use it to traverse the stars? When they find a way to unify the individual brains that compose their species, would it merely be used to communicate faster? When they possessed the resources to harness the energy of stars, would they use it merely for the sake of energy to power a civilization ultimately doomed to die? Do consider that, there’s the possibility such alien civilizations would have reached a singularity so grand that simple ambitions of spreading across the physical plane would be considered extremely dumb ideas. After all, when you’re at that stage when your thoughts travel with such increasing speed, with eyes that extend beyond your native star and unbound by organic eyes, what conclusions would you come to? As trans-organic, possibly trans-physical beings, would you think the same you once did?

      Also consider the numerous microorganisms that have become so hardy as to never need to have such large bodies, possibly having made similar advancements though sheer evolution.

      Any sufficiently advanced alien civilizations would be indistinguishable from being dead, non-existent, or a natural phenomena. And the ones that were left behind may be few, live briefly, and possess little desire or ability to advance further. Such alien remnants would essentially be stupid lifeforms, not the intelligent ones we were looking for, as the intelligent ones would not burden themselves with such limitations. All you’ll be left with are alien beasts and crumbling iron graves.

      • Have you written any sci-fi stories… yet?

      • Sincerita1

        Maybe God!

      • worldstrider

        Very well said Joel. Great post. Spiritual without the normal sort of pseudo-spiritual drivel people usually try to imbue such things with. Great points.

      • germangerm

        Eloquent. What you wrote made my brain itch in a very good way. Thanks for distinguishing yourself from being non-existent. Say, are you a natural phenomena?

    • BlueBoomPony

      The guy throws out 0.1% light speed this and 1000 years at each star that, but posits no motivation. Why would an alien race be hell bent on expending enormous energies doing such a thing? And this assumes that each migration they’re shipping a full population and industrial base capable of world disassembling/rebuilding in such a short timeframe. Why? You just got done creating a living space capable of supporting your species for millions of years.

      Am I the only one sees a lot of this speculation for the nonsense that it is?

    • I don’t think a Dyson sphere or a Ringworld would actually be able to hold their position relative to the Star they are surrounding. They cannot orbit (a spinning ring is not orbiting).
      Think about it… it won’t work.

    • naturalist469

      The main reason we can’t find intelligent life are the obvious ones. Earth is a very special planet with a special moon, in a great location. Other civilizations may exist but who would want to leave a comfortable home to travel for 50+ years just to find some random star. If you want to find a habitable planet you have to travel about 500 years and that’s if you’re going at 10% the speed of light which is 10X faster than the example given above. We wont need to leave our star for about a billion years so why would we expect any other population of organisms to leave theirs.
      Higher dimensional travel or the bending of space is the only way an organism could travel such great distances on a tolerable time scale and those avenues are just theoretical at this point.

    • Debbie

      Maybe I’m remembering this wrong, but I seem to recall from a physics or calculus class homework problem (long ago) that the net force of gravity between a mass anywhere inside a hollow spherical body and the sphere’s mass would be a vector of zero magnitude.

      Wouldn’t this mean that nothing would anchor the star to the center of the sphere and gravitational forces from bodies external to the sphere would or could cause dangerous drift of the sphere’s position relative to the star?

    • yestradamous

      Well, it certainly would be ironic if these spheres do exist, except we are viewing the planets 100,000 years before they were even built.

      • izzyizzo

        On a 10+ thousand million year timespan, that’s not significant.

    • Beagle

      Good luck building anything in the multimillion degree corona 500 kilometers above the ‘cool’ visible surface photosphere of our yellow sun, still at a metal melting 6,000 degrees. Perhaps a brown ‘dwarf’ star would be somewhat more practical. Though it is anything but practical in that case as well.

      It would be a good idea to be certain stars are internally powered before surrounding it with a conductive material — assuming there is enough metal on earth to do that without pounding it down to molecular thickness. Given the huge temperature rise above the surface of our sun, which nobody understands, I would not assume the sun is internally powered. If, as Donald Scott recently, and Juergens before him, are correct, the sun is powered by a cosmic charged particle flow, electricity basically, substantially occluding that power source could cause a nova type discharge.

      Given the trend of present technology I suspect alien contact would be with synthetic life capable of making centuries-long journeys in a hostile radiation and zero G environment which causes enormous problems for multicellular life, not counting the space-faring tardigrade of course.

    • puhiawa

      But what could be more important than welfare and racial politics? And doesn’t a Dyson Sphere contribute to global warming?

    • Kent j

      Since there has been an infinite amount of time in the universe, and no aliens have made themselves known to us, either they do not exist, or we will never know. There are no baby alien races, in comparison to the number of full blown mature races that ‘should’ exist. There are no aliens. Evolution is too unlikely to ever happen again, or before.

    • Walter Adams

      I think it would be a better use of human resources to investigate how, exactly, does Bruce Banner turn into the Hulk then back to normal without destroying his body.
      Or, where do Pixies go when the Sun comes up?
      Or, how many Astrophysicists can dance on the head of an Appropriations Committee Senator? 2- 4 – a dozen?
      Somewhere on this sad old earth, there is someone trying to prove that Leprechauns do exist, and, if he could only get more funding he could hire more “Researchers” to help him and speed the wonderful day when we arrive at that elusive Crock o’ Gold.

    • Jack Hagan

      I don’t normally post links, but whomever is reading this article might want to read this short article on wikipedia-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Filter
      I’m sorry, this program is editing out the link address. You can just search “The Great Filter” You won’t be sorry, very short, very interesting.

    • mark abrams

      wouldn’t it be nice if we had some theory to help use determine whether artifacts we encounter were made by intelligences other than our own or were natural ? But such a theory might be applied incorrectly, to darwinian evolution for example, and we cant have that. So intelligent design theory must be banished to the outer darkness .

    • Peter Elliot B

      We are looking at an energy situation through the eyes of primitives. A Dyson sphere seems like a good answer to energy problems for us neonates but I imagine that advanced technology can come up with better solutions. Fusion does not give up all the energy in an atom so this is an energy solution for fledgling civilizations. Indeed, contemplating advanced civilizations by a civilization that is barely a century into the technological age may well be futile.

    • Jacin Rome

      It seems to me as our technology evolves things are getting smaller and more efficient. Why would we suppose a civilization more advanced than our own would engage in massive engineering projects. It almost seems like a Victorian notion put forward by Isambard Kingdom Brunnel. I believe we are hearing from them in the form of FRBs (fast radio bursts) 187.5 is the number we should get to know. Even though they last a fraction of a second the amount of energy released is equivalent to a month’s worth of energy the sun produces. The other thing to note is what ever is producing the FRBs is less than 200 miles across. Hardly a Dyson sphere.

    • abinico

      Advanced alien civilization – so that means they have survived and are past GMOs, nuclear power, vaccines, Pelosi, etc. etc.

    • Mississippi Donald

      Black Hole during a supernova explosion. Mathematics is important but the dead black holes have major conrtrol over what happens on Earth and other planets. And I think that dead black is the power behind Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Galaxies, and Star Clusters. What happens on each planet and the sun is dependent on the Black Hole at its center. I have seen the inside of my brane and it is like a bunch of layered grey clouds that each one can be seen inside as a memory.

      The Dead Black Holes become live Black Holes duing Rebirth.

    • La Feria

      Nibiru.