2002 eruption, which left more than 100 people dead and another 100,000
describes two main types of volcanic eruptions: explosive, as seen at Mt.
Saint Helens where lava shot up 25 kilometers, and effusive, as seen in Hawaii,
where lava is very fluid and erupts wherever it can.
notes that Nyiragongo
is an effusive volcano characterized by an extensive network of
fissures—which now extend beneath the city of Goma—that can fill
with magma and erupt.
points out that the volcano contains lava that has been clocked at speeds
of almost 100 kilometers per hour, making it the fastest-moving lava on
outlines how scientists forecast volcanic eruptions through the use of
seismology, land deformation, and geochemistry, which they measure with
seismology readings, satellite imagery, and gas fume sampling.
another threat facing Goma—concentrations of deadly carbon dioxide gas at
the bottom of Lake Kivu that could be released through earthquake or lava
eruption from Nyiragongo.
shows people building homes in the path of a potential lava flow
because they are unafraid of the volcano's dangers or unable to go
follows volcanologists as they descend into the volcano's crater to
collect gas and lava samples.
describes the dangers scientists face as volcano walls begin to collapse,
forcing the team to abandon its efforts.
follows the team as it returns to the crater to attempt a new lava
details how scientists examine gas and lava samples to gain information
about the volcano's current state.
summarizes evidence showing a very active volcanic system that could
quickly erupt stored magma, flood the city with lava in minutes, and release
toxic gases from the nearby lake—all of which could lead to a
catastrophic natural disaster.