First massacre of Jews in Romania.
Deportation of 72,000 Jews into the Warsaw Ghetto.
Deportation of 400 Jewish hostages from Amsterdam to Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria.
German troops occupy Bulgaria.
Induction of German Jews into forced labor.
Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece.
Arrest of 3,600 Parisian Jews. Romania passes law condemning adult Jews to forced labor.
French Marshall Petain approves collaboration with Hitler in radio broadcast.
Vichy government revokes civil rights of French Jews in North Africa and decrees many restrictions against them. Nazi SS Einsatzgruppen begin mass murder.
Germany attacks the Soviet Union.
Mass shootings of Jews begin in Ponary Forest, the killing grounds near Vilna, Poland. By 1944, 70,000 to 100,000 perish there.
Numerous pogroms occur in occupied Russian territories.
Anti-racist riots in Lvov, Poland in which Ukrainian nationalists take part.
Introduction of the wearing of the Star of David in Baltic countries.
Alfred Rosenberg appointed Reich Minister for the Eastern Occupied Territories to administer territories seized from the Soviet Union.
Göring assigns Heydrich the task for "a complete solution of the Jewish question in the German sphere of influence in Europe." Beginning of the "Final Solution."
Ghettos established in Bialystok and Lvov, Poland.
Janówska labor and extermination camp opens near Lvov in Ukraine.
Police order pertaining to the introduction of the Star of David in Germany, effective September 19 for all Jews age six and older.
First gassing tests in Auschwitz using Zyklon-B, a poisonous gas.
Vilna Ghetto created with population of 40,000 Jews.
German troops capture Kiev, Ukraine.
Heydrich declared "Protector of Bohemia and Moravia."
Mass murder of Jews at Babi Yar near Kiev (34,000 victims).
Forced labor for the Jews in the Reich.
Ghetto in Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, established.
Massacre of Jews at Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine (11,000 victims).
Orders issued for deportation of German Jews from Germany as defined by its 1933 borders.
Deportation of the Jews from the Reich begins.
Massacre of Jews in Odessa (34,000 victims). Prohibition against the emigration of Jews.
Einsatzgruppen mass killings of Jews all over southern Russia.
Massacre of Jews in Kiev (34,000 victims).
Massacre of Jews in Kovno (Kaunas), Lithuania (15,000 victims).
Declaration made pertaining to the collection of Jewish assets through deportations.
Massacre of Jews in Riga, Latvia; victims include the first transport of Jews from Germany (27,000 victims).
Japanese attack Pearl Harbor. Hitler issues "Night and Fog" decree, policy under which underground agents and other opponents are made to vanish into the "night and fog."
The United States and Britain declare war on Japan. Chelmno extermination camp opens near Lodz, Poland. By April 1943, 360,000 Jews will have been murdered at Chelmno.
Germany declares war on the United States, which, in turn, declares war on Germany.
Massacre of Jews in Simferopol in the Crimea (10,000 victims).
Photos: Courtesy of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archives.
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