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November 21, 2006: Links & Books

Mass Extinction


The Permo-Triassic extinction
The University of Bristol, England offers this Web site on the Permian extinction. Find information on the possible causes of this massive event, the species it wiped out, and more.

The Great Dying
On this NASA Web site, learn how tiny capsules of cosmic gas inside Permian-Triassic rocks are offering clues to the cause of this massive extinction.

Flood Basalts, Mantle Plumes and Mass Extinctions
The Geological Society of London provides this Web site on flood-basalt eruptions and their possible contribution to the Permian extinction.

Exploring Antarctica: Understanding Life on Earth and Beyond
Find out what geological deposits in Antarctica can teach us about the Permian extinction on this Web site from the University of California, Santa Barbara.

Permian-Triassic Extinction
In this video segment from the PBS program "Evolution: Extinction!," geologist Peter Ward investigates rock layers laid down during the Permian and Triassic periods for clues to the extinction.


Rivers in Time: The Search for Clues to Earth's Mass Extinctions
by Peter D. Ward. Columbia University Press, 2000.

Catastrophes and Lesser Calamities: The Causes of Mass Extinctions
by Tony Hallam. Oxford University Press USA, 2004.

Evolutionary Catastrophes: The Science of Mass Extinction
by Vincent Courtillot. Cambridge University Press, 2002.


"When Life Nearly Came to an End"
by Hillel Hoffmann. National Geographic Magazine, September 2000.

1918 Flu


HHMI Online Companion
The Howard Hughes Medical Institute offers an extensive collection of pandemic-flu resources in its online companion to this episode of NOVA scienceNOW.
More on HHMI and its partnership with NOVA

Web Focus: 1918 influenza pandemic
This Web site from the science journal Nature provides a number of articles and other resources for current research on the 1918 flu.

Influenza (Flu)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides answers to frequently asked questions about its work with the 1918 flu virus.
Find information on health safety, planning, research activities, and more on the U.S. government's official Web site on pandemic flu and avian influenza.

The Deadly Virus: The Influenza Epidemic of 1918
In this online exhibit from the National Archives and Records Administration, view scanned photographs and other documents from the 1918 flu pandemic.

Influenza 1918
On this companion Web site to the American Experience program "Influenza 1918," see a time line of events, read interviews with show participants, and more.


America's Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918
by Alfred W. Crosby. Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Devil's Flu: The World's Deadliest Influenza Epidemic and the Scientific Hunt for the Virus That Caused It
by Pete Davies. Owl Books, 2000.

Smart Mice, Not-So-Smart People: An Interesting and Amusing Guide to Bioethics
by Arthur L. Caplan. Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.


"Unmasking the 1918 Influenza Virus: An Important Step Toward Pandemic Influenza Preparedness," a joint statement by Anthony Fauci, Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, and Julie Gerberding, Director, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, October 5, 2005

"Why Revive a Deadly Flu Virus?"
by Jamie Shreeve. The New York Times Magazine, January 26, 2006.

Profile: Cynthia Breazeal


Cynthia Breazeal
On Cynthia Breazeal's homepage, find a brief biography, links to her current research, publications, and more.

Cynthia Breazeal: The Robot Designer
As part of the National Academy of Sciences' "I Was Wondering..." series, this profile of Cynthia Breazeal offers a kid-friendly look inside the world of a roboticist. Browse interactive features, watch video clips of Breazeal's robots in action, and more.

Mobility and Robotic Systems
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory robotics Web site provides detailed information and image galleries for current space-based robotics projects.

FIRST Robotics Competition
The FIRST Robotics Competition is a series of international events that pair professionals and students together for creative problem-solving in the field of robotics. On its Web site, view video from past competitions, find resources for participating teams, read information on getting involved, and much more.

Robot Pals
Read a 2005 interview with Cynthia Breazeal on this Web site from the PBS series Scientific American Frontiers.


Designing Sociable Robots
by Cynthia L. Breazeal. The MIT Press, 2002.

Robo World: The Story of Robot Designer Cynthia Breazeal
by Jordan D. Brown. Joseph Henry Press, 2005.

The Robot Builder's Bonanza: 99 Inexpensive Robotics Projects
by Gordon McComb. McGraw-Hill/TAB Electronics, 2000.


"Cynthia Breazeal: The Machine Nurturer"
by Adam Cohen. TIME, December 3, 2000.,9171,1101001204-90515,00.html

"Robots Are Getting More Sociable"
by Alan Boyle. MSNBC, February 18, 2003.



POxy: Oxyrhynchus Online
On this Web site from the University of Oxford, England, find a searchable guide and online database for the Oxyrhynchus papyri, read about recent imaging techniques, browse a virtual exhibit, and more.

Greek Papyrus Fragments from Oxyrhynchus in Glasgow University Library's Special Collections Department
Download high-resolution scans of selected Oxyrhynchus papyrus fragments on this page from the University of Glasgow, Scotland.

The Philodemus Project
Learn about imaging techniques used to read charred papyrus fragments from Herculaneum, an ancient Roman town destroyed in the same eruption that buried nearby Pompeii.

The Center for the Tebtunis Papyri
The University of California, Berkeley offers this online exhibit on the Tebtunis papyri, a series of ancient texts discovered during excavations at Tebtunis, Egypt in 1899 and 1900.

Seeing Into the Past
Discover how a multispectral imaging technology developed for NASA was used to decipher portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls.


Bookrolls and Scribes in Oxyrhynchus
by William A. Johnson. University of Toronto Press, 2004.

Digital Heritage: Applying Digital Imaging to Cultural Heritage
edited by Lindsay MacDonald. Butterworth-Heinemann Publishers, 2006.

by Richard Parkinson and Stephen Quirke. University of Texas Press, 1995.


"How To Read a Dirty Papyrus: First, Call NASA"
by Daniel Engber., April 18, 2005.

"Papyrus Reveals New Clues to Ancient World"
by James Owen. National Geographic News, April 25, 2005.


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