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Shackleton's Voyage of Endurance
Mapping Terra Incognita
Henricus Hondius, Polus Antarcticus (1639)
Hondius map

Mapmaker Henricus Hondius scrupulously recorded the known area of Antarctica in 1639—nothingness. Not given to conjuring continents on a whim, Hondius confined his flights of fancy to the perimeter of his map, where Magellanic penguins, native to South America, disport themselves. His conception endured as a model for mapmakers for some 60 years, countering the traditional mapmaker's penchant for speculating into existence what had not yet been seen or explored.

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Claudius Ptolemy (150 AD) | Oronce Finé (1531)
Henricus Hondius (1639) | J. Dezauche (1773-75)
James Clark Ross (1845) | Royal Geographical Society (1898)
United States Geological Survey (1999)

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