Cathren Warner fits John Mack with his costume before filming
aboard the James Caird at sea.
"I cannot imagine how they survived, it's just phenomenal," says Cathren
Warner, costume designer for NOVA's large-format film about Shackleton's
expedition currently in production in the Antarctic. Warner has special
insight into the day-to-day battle against the elements waged by
Shackleton's crew. A designer for feature films, large-format films, and
commercials for the past 15 years, she specializes in period films. In order
to create historically accurate costumes for the film's recreation scenes,
she researched period Antarctic "kit" extensively.
"I loved the research process, reading expedition books and journals to find
references to clothing, and examining archival photos," enthuses Warner.
"Then I went to England to study actual clothing in the archives of the
National Maritime Museum and Burberry's, which was just fascinating.
"Burberry's outfitted the Scott,
Antarctic expeditions, and supplied Warner with the same type of cotton
gabardine fabric used for their coats.
The standard issue gear for Shackleton's crew members included Jaeger woolen
long underwear, a woolen pullover sweater, woolen trousers and coat or vest,
a wool muffler and balaclava, wool socks, fur mitts, and either leather
hobnail, cotton-gabardine, or reindeer-fur finnesko boots. The outfit was
topped with a Burberry's cotton gabardine coat.
Mountain guide Simon Abrahams demonstrates what it takes to brave the Antarctic elements:
Base layer of moisture - wicking thermal top, shorts, liner socks,
thick woolen socks, waterproof insulated boots with thermal insoles
Layer 2: Wind-resistant, thermal fleece bibs
Layer 3: Medium-weight fleece jacket
Layer 4: Fleece neck gaiter, windproof / waterproof / breathable bibs
Layer 5: Fleece balaclava, heavyweight fleece jacket, moisture-wicking glove
Layer 6: Windproof / waterproof / breathable shell jacket, windproof fleece
Layer 7: Ultraviolet A/B blocking sun goggles, SPF 45 sunblock,
waterproof / windproof / breathable insulated overmitts, radio, waterproof
immersion bibs and jacket with insulation and built-in flotation, ski pole
"Shackleton's men must have been incredibly uncomfortable," speculates
Warner. "Wool holds water and doesn't wick moisture away from the skin, so
they would have been wet and chafed from the scratchy wool. There's a
possibility that the build-up of soot and seal blubber on their unwashed
skin over such a long period could have provided some protection, but not
much. And wind blows right through it. The gabardine coat would have
supplied some wind and water resistance. But it's no wonder that frostbite
was a problem for them."
The period clothing is so inefficient, in fact, that Warner designed the
costumes to accommodate a base layer of clothing made with modern
moisture-wicking, wind-resistant fabrics. In addition, since the film's
skippers would be sailing replicas of the Endurance lifeboats on the rough
Antarctic seas, where immersion could mean hypothermia in minutes, the
costumes also accommodate an immersion suit underneath.
Modern Antarctic kit is designed to be lightweight and comfortable, which is
essential for expedition members like mountain guide Simon Abrahams.
Abrahams has worked in the Antarctic often since 1992, when he first joined
British Antarctic Survey as a field guide. In 1996-98, he overwintered for
18 months while based at Rothera Station. He's part of a team of guides
assembled by polar experts David Rootes
and Nick Lewis. The guides
ensure that the film crews work in this environment safely, and an essential
element of survival is clothing.
"The key is keeping warm and dry, and wearing layers you can take on or off
through the day," says Abrahams. "Conditions change so quickly here. This
gear would easily take you to -100°F."
Answer to October 28 Question of the Day:
Past expeditions have traveled on foot, dog sled, skis, wind-power, the
newly invented motor car, ponies, and even bicycles, and each had their
drawbacks. What method of travel will you choose for your expedition?
I led the first dog-sled expedition that crossed Antarctica. This was
Shackleton's dream in 1915, but he was stopped when his ship the Endurance
was crushed in the sea ice. I choose the longest route, which was just a few
miles short of 3,800 miles. We left in the northernmost region of the
Antarctic Peninsula on July 27, 1989, and arrived over 220 days later on the
eastern side of Antarctica at the Russian Base of Mirny on March 3, 1990.
We left in mid-winter and traveled through spring, summer, fall and into the
beginning of the winter season of 1990.
On my dog-sled expedition of 1989-1990, I chose an international team of
five other men. We were all from different countries—Quin Dahe (Peoples
Republic of China), Keizo Funatsu (Japan), Jean-Louis Etienne (France),
Victor Boyarsky (Soviet Union), Geoff Somers (Great Britain), and myself
from the United States. Our average age was over forty, and we were all
experienced in cold weather. Also there were 30 dogs. We traveled on skis
with three dog sleds; each one was pulled by ten dogs. We trained
extensively before the expedition, and we all had lived together during this
long training period. The dogs also went through a long training period. The
success and safety of an expedition depends on this training.
—Will Steger is a polar explorer and author who led the first
transcontinental dog-sled expedition that crossed Antarctica.