Invisible Universe Revealed

Follow the historic rescue of Hubble—the space telescope that unveiled the cosmos. Airing April 22, 2015 at 9 pm on PBS Aired April 22, 2015 on PBS

Program Description

Twenty-five years ago, NASA launched one of the most ambitious experiments in the history of astronomy: the Hubble Space Telescope. In honor of Hubble's landmark anniversary, NOVA tells the remarkable story of the telescope that forever changed our understanding of the cosmos. But Hubble's early days nearly doomed it to failure: a one-millimeter engineering blunder had turned the billion-dollar telescope into an object of ridicule. It fell to five heroic astronauts in a daring mission to return Hubble to the cutting edge of science. This single telescope has helped astronomers pinpoint the age of the universe, revealed the birthplace of stars and planets, advanced our understanding of dark energy and cosmic expansion, and uncovered black holes lurking at the heart of galaxies. Join NOVA for the story of this magnificent machine and its astonishing discoveries.

Broadcast Credits

WRITTEN, PRODUCED AND DIRECTED BY
Peter Yost
EDITED BY
Anna Auster
CAMERA
Rob Lyall
NARRATED BY
Jay O. Sanders
ASSOCIATE PRODUCER
Frauke Levin
PRODUCTION MANAGER
Edna Alburquerque
MUSIC
Killer Tracks
ANIMATION
Stephanie Gould
ASSISTANT EDITOR
Anastasia Fedoryaka
ONLINE EDITOR & COLORIST
Blerti Murataj
VISUAL FX ARTIST
Zamir Liço
SOUND DESIGN
Andrey Netboy
SOUND MIX
Patrick Donohue
PRODUCTION ASSISTANTS
Hayden Freedman
Tara Gonzalez
Charles MacDonald
Kevin Norton
Emma Parker
Douglas Scott
ARCHIVAL MATERIAL
A. Mellinger (Central Michigan University), T. Rector (University of Alaska, Anchorage), Digitized Sky Survey (DSS), STScI/AURA, Palomar/Caltech, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
Al Fenn/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images
American Astronomical Society
BBC Motion Gallery / Getty Images
Carnegie Observatories
Courtesy of the Archives, California Institute of Technology
E.J. Schreier (STScI), and NASA
Edwin Hubble Papers, Huntington Library, San Marino, California
ESA & Garrelt Mellema (Leiden University, the Netherlands)
ESA & Valentin Bujarrabal (Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Spain)
ESA, NASA, HEIC and The Hubble Heritage Team STScI/AURA)
ESA/Hubble
ESA/Hubble (L. Calçada)
ESA/Hubble (M. Kornmesser & L. L. Christensen)
ESA/Hubble & NASA
ESA/Hubble & NASA Acknowledgement: Det58 (Flickr User)
ESA/Hubble & NASA Acknowledgement: Marc Canale
ESA/Hubble & NASA Acknowledgement: R. Buta (University of Alabama)
ESA/Hubble & NASA Acknowledgement: Cornen
ESA/Hubble & NASA Acknowledgement: Davide de Martin
ESA/Hubble, NASA and D. A. Gouliermis
ESA/Hubble, NASA and H. Olofsson (Onsala Space Observatory)
F. Paresce, R. Jedrzejewski (STScI), NASA/ESA
Francesco Parasce, ESA/STScI and NASA
G. Bacon, L. Frattare, Z. Levay, and F. Summers (STScI) Acknowledgment: A. Fujii, the Digitized Sky Survey 2, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
G. Bacon, T. Borders, L. Frattare, Z. Levay, and F. Summers (STScI)
Holland Ford, Space Telescope Science Institute/Johns Hopkins University; Richard Harms, Applied Research Corp.; Zlatan Tsvetanov, Arthur Davidsen, and Gerard Kriss at Johns Hopkins; Ralph Bohlin and George Hartig at Space Telescope Science Institute; Linda Dressel and Ajay K. Kochhar at Applied Research Corp. in Landover, Md.; and Bruce Margon from the University of Washington in Seattle.; NASA
J.P. Harrington and K.J. Borkowski (University of Maryland), and NASA/ESA
Jake Dean, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Jeffrey Newman (Univ. of California at Berkeley) and NASA/ESA
Karl Gebhardt (University of Michigan), Tod Lauer (NOAO), and NASA
kerempooh/Pond5
L. Ferrarese (Johns Hopkins University) and NASA
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab
Lovemushroom/Pond5.com
M. Kornmesser(ESA/Hubble)
Margaret Bourke-White/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
NASA
NASA & ESA
NASA and A. Riess (STScI)
NASA and Ron Gilliland (Space Telescope Science Institute)
NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: C.R. O'Dell (Vanderbilt University)
NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: P. Goudfrooij (STScI)
NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
NASA, ESA and Allison Loll/Jeff Hester (Arizona State University). Acknowledgement: Davide De Martin (ESA/Hubble)
NASA, ESA, and Z. Levay, and G. Bacon (STScI)
NASA, ESA, and G. Bacon, T. Davis, L. Frattare, Z. Levay, and F. Summers (Viz 3D Team, STScI)
NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), J. Emerson (ESO, VISTA), and Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit
NASA, ESA, and G. Bacon (STScI)
NASA, ESA and Jesús Maíz Apellániz (Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Spain)
NASA, ESA and T. Lauer (NOAO/AURA/NSF)
NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration
NASA, ESA and the Hubble Key Project Team
NASA, ESA, A. Riess (STScI and JHU), and S. Rodney (JHU)
NASA, ESA, A. Riess (STScI and JHU), D. Jones and S. Rodney (JHU), S. Faber (University of California, Santa Cruz), H. Ferguson (STScI), and the CANDELS team
NASA, ESA, A.V. Filippenko (University of California, Berkeley), P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), et al.
NASA, ESA, and C. Robert O’Dell (Vanderbilt University)
NASA, ESA, and H. Richer (University of British Columbia)
NASA, ESA, and J. Lotz, M. Mountain, A. Koekemoer, and the HFF Team (STScI)
NASA, ESA, and J.-Y. Li (Planetary Science Institute)
NASA, ESA, and Johan Richard (Caltech, USA) Acknowledgement: Davide de Martin & James Long (ESA/Hubble)
NASA, ESA, and K. Sahu (STScI)
NASA, ESA, and N. Pirzkal (European Space Agency/STScI)
NASA, ESA, and STScI
NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration
NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration Acknowledgment: A. Fabian (Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, UK)
NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration. Acknowledgment: J. Hester (Arizona State University)
NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration. Acknowledgement: Robert A. Fesen (Dartmouth College, USA) and James Long (ESA/Hubble) NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI), Acknowledgment: W. Blair (Johns Hopkins University)
NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA). Acknowledgement: J. Hughes (Rutgers University)
NASA, ESA, and the Hubble SM4 ERO Team
NASA, ESA, Andrew Fruchter (STScI), and the ERO team (STScI + ST-ECF)
NASA, ESA, D. Lennon and E. Sabbi (ESA/STScI), J. Anderson, S. E. de Mink, R. van der Marel, T. Sohn, and N. Walborn (STScI), N. Bastian (Excellence Cluster, Munich), L. Bedin (INAF, Padua), E. Bressert (ESO), P. Crowther (University of Sheffield), A. de Koter (University of Amsterdam), C. Evans (UKATC/STFC, Edinburgh), A. Herrero (IAC, Tenerife), N. Langer (AifA, Bonn), I. Platais (JHU), and H. Sana (University of Amsterdam)
NASA, ESA, E. Meyer, W. Sparks, J. Biretta, J. Anderson, S.T. Sohn, and R. van der Marel (STScI), C. Norman (Johns Hopkins University), and M. Nakamura (Academia Sinica)
NASA, ESA, G. Bacon (STScI), the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration, and H. Bond (STScI and Pennsylvania State University)
NASA, ESA, J. Dalcanton (University of Washington, USA), B. F. Williams (University of Washington, USA), L. C. Johnson (University of Washington, USA), the PHAT team, and R. Gendler
NASA, ESA, J. Fraine
NASA, ESA, M. Regan and B. Whitmore (STScI) and R. Chandar (University of Toledo, USA)
NASA, ESA, N. Smith (University of California, Berkeley), and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) and NOAO/AURA/NSF
NASA, ESA, R. Ellis (Caltech), and the UDF 2012 Team
NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), and IPHAS
NASA, European Space Agency, and H.E. Bond (STScI)
NASA, STScI
NASA,ESA, M. Robberto (Space Telescope Science Institute/ESA) and the Hubble Space Telescope Orion Treasury Project Team
NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
NASA/ESA, J. English (U. Manitoba), S. Hunsberger, S. Zonak, J. Charlton, S. Gallagher (PSU), and L. Frattare (STScI)
NASA/ESA, The Hubble Key Project Team and The High-Z Supernova Search Team
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Nobel Media AB
Perlmutter et al., The Supernova Cosmology Project
Raghvendra Sahai and John Trauger (JPL), the WFPC2 science team, and NASA/ESA
Theodore E. Houck and Arthur D. Code, University of Wisconsin
SPECIAL THANKS
American Institute of Physics
Greg Bacon
Roberto Barrueto-Cabello
Federica Bianco
Kenneth Carpenter
Frank Cepollina
Cradle of Aviation Museum, Garden City, Long Island
Larry Dunham
Alexander Fillipenko
K. E. Saavik Ford
Colin Fries
Daniel Patrick Gallagher
Peter Garnavich
Cheryl Gundy
David Haskins
Brian Hayden
John W. Ross Elementary School, Washington, DC
Henry Kandel
Deanna Kekesi
Martin Kornmesser
Matthew D. Lallo
Bruno Leibundgut
Zolt Levay
Dan Lewis
Eric Linder
Mordecai Mark Mac-Low
Mike McClare
NASA HQ Library Staff
NASA MSFC Library Staff
Robert O’Dell
Marshall Perrin
Matthew Radcliff
RESET of Washington, DC — Classroom Adventures in Science and Math
Michael Salvati
Blair Savage
J. Michael Shull
Remi Soummer
Jon Voisey
NOVA SERIES GRAPHICS
yU + co.
NOVA THEME MUSIC
Walter Werzowa
John Luker
Musikvergnuegen, Inc.
ADDITIONAL NOVA THEME MUSIC
Ray Loring
Rob Morsberger
CLOSED CAPTIONING
The Caption Center
POST PRODUCTION ONLINE EDITOR
Spencer Gentry
DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
Jennifer Welsh
PUBLICITY
Eileen Campion
Eddie Ward
SENIOR RESEARCHER
Kate Becker
ASSOCIATE RESEARCHER
Diane Toomey
NOVA ADMINISTRATOR
Ariel Ramirez-Stich
PRODUCTION COORDINATOR
Linda Callahan
PARALEGAL
Sarah Erlandson
TALENT RELATIONS
Janice Flood
LEGAL COUNSEL
Susan Rosen
DIGITAL MANAGING PRODUCER
Kristine Allington
SENIOR DIGITAL EDITOR
Tim De Chant
DIRECTOR OF NEW MEDIA
Lauren Aguirre
DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATE
Lisa Leombruni
RIGHTS MANAGER
Lauren Miller
UNIT MANAGER
Ariam McCrary
POST PRODUCTION COORDINATOR
Brittany Flynn
SUPERVISING PRODUCER
Kevin Young
POST PRODUCTION EDITOR
Michael H. Amundson
BROADCAST MANAGER
Nathan Gunner
BUSINESS MANAGER
Elizabeth Benjes
DEVELOPMENT PRODUCER
David Condon
PROJECT DIRECTOR
Pamela Rosenstein
COORDINATING PRODUCER
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SENIOR PRODUCER
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SENIOR SERIES PRODUCER
Melanie Wallace
DEPUTY EXECUTIVE PRODUCER
Julia Cort
MANAGING DIRECTOR
Alan Ritsko
SENIOR EXECUTIVE PRODUCER
Paula S. Apsell

A NOVA Production by Pangloss Films, LLC for WGBH Boston.

© 2015 WGBH Educational Foundation

All rights reserved

Any Project reference to any specific commercial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government, the Department of Energy, or The Regents of the University of California or the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The views and opinions of authors expressed in the Project do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government, the Department of Energy, The Regents of the University of California or the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

This program was produced by WGBH, which is solely responsible for its content.

IMAGE:

Image credit: (Hubble Telescope)
© Courtesy NASA

Participants

Jim Crocker
Former Head, Hubble Operations
Drake Deming
University of Maryland
Sandra Faber
Astronomer
John Grunsfeld
Head of NASA Science/Astronaut
Mario Livio
Space Telescope Science Institute www.mariolivio.com/about-the-author/
Mike Massimino
Former NASA Astronaut
Matt Mountain
Space Telescope Science Institute www.stsci.edu/~mountain/
Story Musgrave
NASA Astronaut (Retired) www.storymusgrave.com/
Saul Perlmutter
University of California, Berkeley
William Proxmire
U.S. Senator (Deceased)
Adam Riess
Johns Hopkins University
Nancy Roman
Former NASA Chief Astronomer
Amber Straughn
Astrophysicist
Ed Weiler
NASA Science Mission Directorate www.nasa.gov/about/highlights/weiler_biography.html

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