As far back as the Ancient Laws of China, the death penalty has been
established as a punishment for crimes. In the 18th Century BC, the Code of
King Hammurabi of Babylon codified the death penalty for twenty five different
crimes, although murder was not one of them. The first death sentence
historically recorded occurred in 16th Century BC Egypt where the wrongdoer, a
member of nobility, was accused of magic, and ordered to take his own life.
During this period non-nobility was usually killed with an ax.|
In the 14th Century BC, the Hittite Code also prescribed the death penalty.
The 7th Century BC Draconian Code of Athens made death the penalty for every
crime committed. In the 5th Century BC, the Roman Law of the Twelve Tablets
codified the death penalty. Again, the death penalty was different for
nobility, freemen and slaves and was punishment for crimes such as the
publication of libels and insulting songs, the cutting or grazing of crops
planted by a farmer, the burning [of] a house or a stack of corn near a house,
cheating by a patron of his client, perjury, making disturbances at night in
the city, willful murder of a freeman or a parent, or theft by a slave. Death
was often cruel and included crucifixion, drowning at sea, burial alive,
beating to death, and impalement (often used by Nero). The Romans had a
curious punishment for parricides (murder of a parent): the condemned was
submersed in water in a sack, which also contained a dog, a rooster, a viper
and an ape. The most notorious death execution in BC was about 399
BC when the Greek philosopher Socrates was required to drink poison for heresy
and corruption of youth.
Mosaic Law codified many capital crimes. In fact, there is evidence that Jews
used many different techniques including stoning, hanging, beheading,
crucifixion (copied from the Romans), throwing the criminal from a rock, and
sawing asunder. The most infamous execution of history occurred approximately
29 AD with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ outside Jerusalem. About 300 years
later, the Emperor Constantine, after converting to Christianity, abolished
crucifixion and other cruel death penalties in the Roman Empire. In 438, the
Code of Theodosius made more than 80 crimes punishable by
Britain influenced the colonies more than any other country and has a long
history of punishment by death. About 450 BC, the death penalty was often
enforced by throwing the condemned into a quagmire. By the 10th Century,
hanging from gallows was the most frequent execution method. William the
Conqueror opposed taking life except in war, and ordered no person to be hanged
or executed for any offense. However, he allowed criminals to be mutilated for
their crimes. During the middle ages, capital punishment was accompanied by
torture. Most barons had a drowning pit as well as gallows and they were used
for major as well as minor crimes. For example, in 1279, two hundred and
eighty nine Jews were hanged for clipping coin. Under Edward I, two
gatekeepers were killed because the city gate had not been closed in time to
prevent the escape of an accused murderer. Burning was the punishment for
women's high treason and men were hanged, drawn and quartered. Beheading was
generally accepted for the upper classes. One could be burned for marrying a
Jew. Pressing became the penalty for those who would not confess to their
crimes. The executioner placed heavy weights on the victim's chest. On the
first day he gave the victim a small quantity of bread, on the second day a
small drink of bad water, and so on until he confessed or died. Under the
reign of Henry VIII, the numbers of those put to death are estimated as high as
72,000. Boiling to death was another penalty approved in 1531, and there are
records to show some people boiled for up to two hours before death took them.
When a woman was burned, the executioner tied a rope around her neck when she
was tied to the stake. When the flames reached her she could be strangled from
outside the ring of fire. However, this often failed and many were literally
In Britain, the number of capital offenses continually increased until the
1700's when two hundred and twenty-two crimes were punishable by death. These
included stealing from a house in the amount of forty shillings, stealing from
a shop the value of five shillings, robbing a rabbit warren, cutting down a
tree, and counterfeiting tax stamps. However, juries tended not to convict
when the penalty was great and the crime was not. Reforms began to take place.
In 1823, five laws passed, exempting about a hundred crimes from the death
[penalty]. Between 1832 and 1837, many capital offenses were swept away. In
1840, there was a failed attempt to abolish all capital punishment. Through
the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, more and more capital punishments were
abolished, not only in Britain, but also all across Europe, until today only a
few European countries retain the death penalty.
The first recorded execution in the English American colonies was in 1608 when
officials executed George Kendall of Virginia for supposedly plotting to betray
the British to the Spanish. In 1612, Virginia's governor, Sir Thomas Dale,
implemented the Divine, Moral, and Martial Laws that made death the penalty for
even minor offenses such as stealing grapes, killing chickens, killing dogs or
horses without permission, or trading with Indians. Seven years later these
laws were softened because Virginia feared that no one would settle
In 1622, the first legal execution of a criminal, Daniel Frank, occurred in
Virginia for the crime of theft. Some colonies were very strict
in their use of the death penalty, while others were less so. In Massachusetts
Bay Colony the first execution was in 1630, but the earliest capital statutes
do not occur until later. Under the Capital Laws of New-England that went into
effect between 1636-1647 the death penalty was meted out for pre-meditated
murder, sodomy, witchcraft, adultery, idolatry, blasphemy, assault in anger,
rape, statutory rape, manstealing, perjury in a capital trial, rebellion,
manslaughter, poisoning and bestiality. Early laws were accompanied by a
scripture from the Old Testament. By 1780, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts
only recognized seven capital crimes: murder, sodomy, burglary, buggery,
arson, rape, and treason.
The New York colony instituted the so-called Duke's Laws of 1665. This
directed the death penalty for denial of the true God, pre-meditated murder,
killing someone who had no weapon of defense, killing by lying in wait or by
poisoning, sodomy, buggery, kidnapping, perjury in a capital trial, traitorous
denial of the king's rights or raising arms to resist his authority, conspiracy
to invade towns or forts in the colony and striking one's mother or father
(upon complaint of both). The two colonies that were more lenient concerning
capital punishment were South Jersey and Pennsylvania. In South Jersey there
was no death penalty for any crime and there were only two crimes, murder and
treason, punishable by death.
However under the direction of the Crown, harsher penal codes were execution
there until 1691 [sic]. In Pennsylvania, William Penn's Great Act (1682) made
passed in the colonies [sic]. By 1776, most of the colonies had roughly
comparable death statutes which covered arson, piracy, treason, murder, sodomy,
burglary, robbery, rape, horse-stealing, slave rebellion, and often
counterfeiting. Hanging was the usual sentence. Rhode Island was probably the
only colony which decreased the number of capital crimes in the late 1700's.
Some states were more severe. For example, by 1837, North Carolina required
death for the crimes of murder, rape, statutory rape, slave-stealing, stealing
bank notes, highway robbery, burglary, arson, castration, buggery, sodomy,
bestiality, dueling where death occurs, hiding a slave with intent to free him,
taking a free Negro out of state to sell him, bigamy, inciting slaves to rebel,
circulating seditious literature among slaves, accessory to murder, robbery,
burglary, arson, or mayhem and others. However, North Carolina did not have a
state penitentiary and, many said, no suitable alternative to capital
The first reforms of the death penalty occurred between 1776-1800. Thomas
Jefferson and four others, authorized to undertake a complete revision of
Virginia's laws, proposed a law that recommended the death penalty for only
treason and murder. After a stormy debate the legislature defeated the bill by
one vote. The writing of European theorists such as Montesquieu, Voltaire, and
Bentham had a great effect on American intellectuals, as did English Quaker
prison reformers John Bellers and John Howard.
On Crimes and Punishment, published in English in 1767 by the Italian
jurist Cesare Beccaria, whose exposition on abolishing capital punishment was
the most influential of the time, had an especially strong impact. He
theorized that there was no justification for the taking of life by the state.
He said that the death penalty was "a war of a whole nation against a citizen,
whose destruction they consider as necessary, or useful to the general good."
He asked the question what if it can be shown not to be necessary or useful?
His essay conceded that the only time a death was necessary was when only one's
death could insure the security of a nation -- which would be rare and only in
cases of absolute anarchy or when a nation was on the verge of losing its
liberty. He said that the history of using punishment by death (e.g., the
Romans, 20 years of Czaress Elizabeth) had not prevented determined men from
injuring society and that death was only a "momentary spectacle, and therefore
a less efficacious method of deterring others, than the continued example of a
man deprived of his liberty...."
Organizations were formed in different colonies for the abolition of the death
penalty and to relieve poor prison conditions. Dr. Benjamin Rush, a renowned
Philadelphia citizen, proposed the complete abolition of capital punishment.
William Bradford, Attorney General of Pennsylvania, was ordered to investigate
capital punishment. In 1793 he published An Enquiry How Far the Punishment
of Death is Necessary in Pennsylvania. He strongly insisted that the death
penalty be retained, but admitted it was useless in preventing certain crimes.
In fact, he said the death penalty made convictions harder to obtain, because
in Pennsylvania, and indeed in all states, the death penalty was mandatory and
juries would often not return a guilty verdict because of this fact. In
response, in 1794, the Pennsylvania legislature abolished capital punishment
for all crimes except murder "in the first degree," the first time murder had
been broken down into "degrees." In New York, in 1796, the legislature
authorized construction of the state's first penitentiary, abolished whipping,
and reduced the number of capital offenses from thirteen to two. Virginia and
Kentucky passed similar reform bills. Four more states reduced its capital
crimes: Vermont in 1797, to three; Maryland in 1810, to four; New Hampshire in
1812, to two and Ohio in 1815, to two. Each of these states built state
penitentiaries. A few states went the opposite direction. Rhode Island
restored the death penalty for rape and arson; Massachusetts, New Jersey, and
Connecticut raised death crimes from six to ten, including sodomy, maiming,
robbery, and forgery. Many southern states made more crimes capital,
especially for slaves.
The first great reform era occurred between 1833-1853. Public executions were
attacked as cruel. Sometimes tens of thousands of eager viewers would show up
to view hangings; local merchants would sell souvenirs and alcohol. Fighting
and pushing would often break out as people jockeyed for the best view of the
hanging or the corpse! Onlookers often cursed the widow or the victim and
would try to tear down the scaffold or the rope for keepsakes. Violence and
drunkenness often ruled towns far into the night after "justice had been
served." Many states enacted laws providing private hangings. Rhode Island
(1833), Pennsylvania (1834), New York (1835), Massachusetts (1835), and New
Jersey (1835) all abolished public hangings. By 1849, fifteen states were
holding private hangings. This move was opposed by many death penalty
abolitionists who thought public executions would eventually cause people to
cry out against execution itself. For example, in 1835, Maine enacted what was
in effect a moratorium on capital punishment after over ten thousand people who
watched a hanging had to be restrained by police after they became unruly and
began fighting. All felons sentenced to death would have to remain in prison
at hard labor and could not be executed until one year had elapsed and then
only on the governor's order. No governor ordered an execution under the
"Maine Law" for twenty-seven years. Though many states argued the merits of the death penalty,
no state went as far as Maine. The most influential reformers were the clergy.
Ironically, the small but powerful group which opposed the abolitionists were
also clergy. They were, almost to a person, members of the Calvinist clergy,
especially the Congregationalists and Presbyterians who could be called the
religious establishment of the time. They were led by George
Finally, in 1846, Michigan became the first state to abolish the death penalty
(except for treason against the state), mostly because it had no long tradition
of capital punishment (there had been no hanging since 1830, before statehood)
and because frontier Michigan had few established religious groups to oppose it
as was the case in the east. In 1852, Rhode Island abolished the death penalty
led by Unitarians, Universalists, and especially Quakers. In the same year,
Massachusetts limited its death penalty to first-degree murder. In 1853,
Wisconsin abolished the death penalty after a gruesome execution in which the
victim struggled for five minutes at the end of the rope, and a full eighteen
minutes passed before his heart finally quit.
During the last half of the century the death penalty abolition movement
ground to a half, with many members moving into the slavery abolition movement.
At the same time, states began to pass laws against mandatory death sentences.
Legislators in eighteen states shifted from mandatory to discretionary capital
punishment by 1895, not to save lives, but to try to increase convictions and
executions of murderers. Still, abolitionists gained a few victories. Maine
abolished the death penalty, restored it, and then abolished it again between
1876-1887. Iowa abolished the death penalty for six years. Kansas passed a
"Maine Law" in 1872 which operated as de facto abolition.
Electrocution as a method of execution came onto the scene in an unlikely
manner. Edison Company with its DC (direct current) electrical systems began
attacking Westinghouse Company and its AC (alternating current) electrical
systems as they were pressing for nationwide electrification with alternating
current. To show how dangerous AC could be, Edison Company began public
demonstrations by electrocuting animals. People reasoned that if electricity
could kill animals, it could kill people. In 1888, New York approved the
dismantling of its gallows and the building of the nation's first electric
chair. It held its first victim, William Kemmler, in 1890, and even though the
first electrocution was clumsy at best, other states soon followed the
The Second Great Reform era was 1895-1917. In 1897, U.S. Congress passed a
bill reducing the number of federal death crimes. In 1907, Kansas took the
"Maine Law" a step further and abolished all death penalties. Between 1911 and
1917, eight more states abolished capital punishment (Minnesota, North Dakota,
South Dakota, Oregon, Arizona, Missouri and Tennessee -- the latter in all
cases but rape). Votes in other states came close to ending the death
However, between 1917 and 1955, the death penalty abolition movement again
slowed. Washington, Arizona, and Oregon in 1919-20 reinstated the death
penalty. In 1924, the first execution by cyanide gas took place in Nevada,
when Tong war gang murderer Gee Jon became its first victim. The state wanted
to secretly pump cyanide gas into Jon's cell at night while he was asleep as a
more humanitarian way of carrying out the penalty, but, technical difficulties
prohibited this and a special "gas chamber" was hastily built. Other concerns
developed when less "civilized" methods of execution failed. In 1930, Mrs. Eva
Dugan became the first female to be executed by Arizona. The execution was
botched when the hangman misjudged the drop and Mrs. Dugan's head was ripped
from her body. More states converted to electric chairs and gas chambers.
During this period of time, abolitionist organizations sprang up all across the
country, but they had little effect. There were a number of stormy protests
against the execution of certain convicted felons (e.g., Julius and Ethel
Rosenberg), but little opposition against the death penalty itself. In fact,
during the anti-Communist period with all its fears and hysteria, Texas
Governor Allan Shivers seriously suggested that capital punishment be the
penalty for membership in the Communist Party.
The movement against capital punishment revived again between 1955 and 1972.
England and Canada completed exhaustive studies which were largely critical of
the death penalty and these were widely circulated in the U.S. Death row
criminals gave their own moving accounts of capital punishment in books and
film. Convicted kidnapper Caryl Chessman published Cell 2455 Death Row
and Trial by Ordeal. Barbara Graham's story was utilized in book and
film with I Want to Live! after her execution. Television shows were
broadcast on the death penalty. Hawaii and Alaska ended capital punishment in
1957, and Delaware did so the next year. Controversy over the death penalty
gripped the nation, forcing politicians to take sides. Delaware restored the death penalty in
1961. Michigan abolished capital punishment for treason in 1963. Voters in
1964 abolished the death penalty in Oregon. In 1965 Iowa, New York, West
Virginia, and Vermont ended the death penalty. New Mexico abolished the death
penalty in 1969.
Trying to end capital punishment state-by-state was difficult at best, so death
penalty abolitionists turned much of their efforts to the courts. They finally
succeeded on June 29, 1972 in the case Furman v. Georgia. In nine
separate opinions, but with a majority of 5-4, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled
that the way capital punishment laws were written, including discriminatory
sentencing guidelines, capital punishment was cruel and unusual and violated
the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments. This effectively ended capital
punishment in the United States. Advocates of capital punishment began
proposing new capital statutes which they believed would end discrimination in
capital sentencing, therefore satisfying a majority of the Court. By early
1975, thirty states had again passed death penalty laws and nearly two hundred
prisoners were on death row. In Gregg v. Georgia (1976), the Supreme
Court upheld Georgia's newly passed death penalty and said that the death
penalty was not always cruel and unusual punishment. Death row executions
could again begin. Another form of execution was soon found. Oklahoma passed
the first death by lethal injection law, based on economics as much as
humanitarian reasons. The old electric chair that had not been used in eleven
years would require expensive repairs. Estimates of over $200,000 were given
to build a gas chamber, while lethal injection would cost no more than ten to
fifteen dollars "per event."
The controversy over the death penalty continues today. There is a strong
movement against lawlessness propelled by citizens' fears for their security.
Politicians at the national and state levels are taking the floor of
legislatures and calling for more frequent death penalties, death penalties
penalty [sic] for more crimes, and longer prison sentences. Those opposing
these moves counter by arguing that tougher sentences do not slow crime and
that crime is little or no worse than in the past. In fact, FBI statistics
show murders are now up. (For example 9.3 persons per 100,000 population were
murdered in 1973 and 9.4 persons per 100,000 were murdered in 1992). The
battle lines are still drawn and the combat will probably always be
A number of important capital punishment decisions have been made by the
Supreme Court. The following is a list of the more important ones along with
their legal citations:
Wilkerson v. Utah 99 U.S. 130 (1878) -- Court upheld execution by
firing squad, but said that other types of torture such as "drawing and
quartering, embowelling alive, beheading, public dissection, and burring alive
and all other in the same line of...cruelty, are forbidden."
Weems v. U.S. 217 U.S. 349 (1910) -- Court held that what constitutes
cruel and unusual punishment had not been decided, but that it should not be
confined to the "forms of evil" that framers of the Bill of Rights had
experienced. Therefore, "cruel and unusual" definitions are subject to
Louisiana ex rel. Francis v. Resweber 329 U.S. 459 (1947) -- On May 3,
1946, convicted seventeen year old felon Willie Francis was placed in the
electric chair and the switch was thrown. Due to faulty equipment, he survived
(even though he was severely shocked), was removed from the chair and returned
to his cell. A new death warrant was issued six days later. The Court ruled
5-4 that it was not "cruel and unusual" to finish carrying out the sentence
since the state acted in good faith in the first attempt. "The cruelty against
which the Constitution protects a convicted man is cruelty inherent in the
method of punishment," said the Court, "not the necessary suffering involved in
any method employed to extinguish life humanely." He was then executed.
Tropp v. Dulles 356 U.S. 86 (1958) -- The Court Ruled that punishment
would be considered "cruel and unusual" if it was one of "tormenting severity,"
cruel in its excessiveness or unusual in punishment "must draw its meaning from
the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing
Furman v. Georgia 408 U.S. 238 (1972) -- The Court looking at three
cases struck down the death penalty in many states and set up the standard that
punishment would be considered "cruel and unusual" if any of the following were
present: 1) it was too severe for the crime; 2) it was arbitrary (some get the
punishment and others do not, without guidelines); 3) it offends society's
sense of justice; 4) it was not more effective than a less severe penalty.
Gregg v. Georgia 428 U.S. 153 (1976) -- [The] Court upheld Georgia's
newly passed death penalty and said that the death penalty was not always cruel
and unusual punishment.
Tison v. Arizona 481 U.S. 137 (1987) -- [The] Court upheld Arizona's
death penalty for major participation in a felony with "reckless indifference
to human life."
Thompson v. Oklahoma 108 S. Ct. 2687 (1987) -- The Court considered the
question of execution of minors under the age of 16 at the time of the murder.
The victim was the brother-in-law, who he accused of beating his sister. He
and three others beat the victim, shot him twice, cut his throat, chest, and
abdomen, chained him to a concrete block and threw the body into a river where
it remained for four weeks. Each of the four participants were tried
separately and all were sentenced to death. In a 5-3 decision, four Justices
ruled that Thompson's death sentence was cruel and unusual. The fifth,
O'Connor, concurred but noted that a state must set a minimum age and held out
the possibility that if a state lowers, by statute, the minimum death penalty
age below sixteen, she might support it. She stated, "Although, I believe that
a national consensus forbidding the execution of any person for a crime
committed before the age of 16 very likely does exist, I am reluctant to adopt
this conclusion as a matter of constitutional law without better evidence that
[sic] we now possess." States with no minimum age have rushed to specify a
Penry v. Lynaugh 492 U.S. [sic] (1989) -- [The] Court held that persons
considered retarded, but legally sane, could receive the death penalty. It was
not cruel and unusual punishment under the Eighth Amendment if jurors were
given the opportunity to consider mitigating circumstances. In this case, the
defendant had the mental age of approximately a six-year old child.
 John Laurence, A History of Capital Punishment (N.Y.: The Citadel
Press, 1960), 1-3.
 Michael Kronenwetter, Capital Punishment: AReference Handbook (Santa
Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1993), 71.
 Ibid., p.72.
 Ibid., p.72; Laurence, op.cit., 4-9.
 Laurence, 9-14.
 Kronenwetter, 72-73.
 Hugo Adam Bedau, The Death Penalty in America (N.Y.: Oxford
University Press, 1982).
 Ibid., 7
 Phillip English Mackey, Voices Against Death: American Opposition to
Capital Punishment, 1787-1975 (N.Y.: Burt Franklin & Co., Inc., 1976),
 Bedau, op.cit., 7.
 Mackey, 7-8.
 Cesare Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishment, trans. Henry Paolucci
(Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963).
 Mackey, op. cit., xvi-xvii.
 Ibid., xix-xxv.
 Ibid., xvii-xviii.
 Ibid., xxx-xxxi.
 Ibid., 15.
[18) Ibid., xxxii-xxxiv, xli.
 Ibid., xlvii-xlix.
 Bedau, 17.
 FBI Uniform Crime Report 1992; The Sentencing Project.