01.30.2019

Sara Goldrick-Rab on the Struggles Many Students Face

Hari Sreenivasan sits down with Sara Goldrick-Rab, professor of higher education and sociology at Temple University, to discuss why students are struggling to afford the most basic necessity, food.

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> FOR OUR FINAL REPORT TONIGHT, WE EXPLORED THE PRICE TAG OF A COLLEGE EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES.

RISING DEBTS, LOW WAGING AND INCREASING LIVINGS EXPENSES ARE FORCING STUDENTS TO SACRIFICE THE MOST BASIC NECESSITY, FOOD.

IT IS AN INCREDIBLE SITUATION AND ACCORDING TO A NEW REPORT BY THE U.S. GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE, IT/3 OF E ENOUGH TO EAT.

SARAH RABB SEES THIS IN HER CLASSROOM EVERY DAY.

SHE'S ALSO PAYING THE PRICE AND A PROFESSOR OF HIGHER EDUCATION POLICY AT TEMPLE UNIVERSITY IN PHILADELPHIA.

SHE SPOKE TO THIS WOMAN AS PART OF OUR ONGOING INITIATIVE WHICH LOOKS AT POVERTY, JOBS AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY IN AMERICA CALLED 'CHASING THE DREAM.'

ARE PEOPLE HAVING TO MAKE THE CHOICE BETWEEN EATING AND CONTINUING WITH SCHOOL?

THEY ABSOLUTELY ARE.

THERE'S REALLY NO QUESTION.

WE'VE DONE SO MANY INTERVIEWS AND SO HAVE MY COLLEAGUES OVER THE MANY YEARS NOW AND WE'VE SEEN STUDENTS MAKE THOSE CHOICES ALL THE TIME.

I WILL SEE STUDENTS WHO WILL SAY, YOU KNOW, I'M SO SHORT ONMY BOOKS THIS SEMESTER, IT MEANS I'M GOING TO MISS RENT PAYMENTS.

I MEAN, WE ESTIMATE THAT ALMOST 1 IN 10 OF AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS HAVE BEEN HOMELESS IN THE LAST YEAR.

THIS IS VERY SERIOUS AND VERY COMMON.

IT CAN MEAN THAT A STUDENT, FOR EXAMPLE, HAS A MEDICAL NEED AND THEREFORE DOES NOT HAVE GROCERIES FOR THE MONTH.

THERE ARE SO MANY COMPETING PRESSURES FACING THESE STUDENTS EVERY DAY, SOME OF WHICH, YOU KNOW ORDINARY AMERICANS ARE ALSO VERY ACQUAINTED WITH, BUT IT MEANS THAT THEY'RE GOING TO HAVE TO GIVE UP ON THEIR EDUCATION.

AND LEAVING IT PARTLY UNFINISHED, WHERE THEY LEAVE IN DEBT WITH NO DEGREE IS REALLY CONSEQUENTIAL.

THIS GETS ALMOST PERSONAL FOR YOU.

I REMEMBER YOU TELLING SOMEONE ABOUT ONE OF YOUR OWN STUDENTS REACHING OUT TO YOU AND TELLING YOU WHAT SHE CONSIDERED A

YEAH, I MEAN, I HAVE HAD STUDENTS FOR A LONG TIME WHO HAVE HAD THESE CHALLENGES, BUT I WAS ESPECIALLY TAKEN WHEN I FIRST ARRIVED AT TEMPLE UNIVERSITY AND AN UNDERGRADUATE CAME WALKING INTO MY OFFICE.

I THOUGHT SHE WAS THERE TO ASKF.

I MEAN, SHE LOOKED, YOU KNOW, VERY SORT OF PUT TOGETHER.

A VERY BRIGHT SCIENCE MAJOR AND SHE SAID TO ME, I REALLY NEED T.

AND I SAID, WHAT DO YOU NEED TO?

IT'S THE FIRST TIME THAT WE'VEM.

SHE SAID, I HEAR YOU KNOW THAT YOU KNOW KNOW, THAT YOU UNDERSTAND THERE ARE THINGS GOING ON THAT WE DON'T TALK ABOUT.

TO TELL ME?L, WHAT DO YOU NEED AND SHE SAID, I DON'T HAVE ENOUGH MONEY FOR FOOD.

AND SHE SAID, AND I'M SO EMBARRASSED TO SAY THIS, BUT I'VE ACTUALLY STARTED SHOPLIFTING AT THE LOCAL GROCERY STORE SO THAT I CAN GET ENOUGHT.

AND SHE SAID, AND I WAS RECENTLY CAUGHT, AND THAT MEANS I CAN'TD.

SO SHE SAID, SO I DON'T KNOW WHERE TO GET FOOD.

AND TO BE REALLY FRANK WITH YOUE WAS A WHITE WOMAN WHO LOOKED VERY MIDDLE-CLASS, AND, IN FACT, IS MIDDLE-CLASS.

SHE IS THE CHILD OF PEOPLE WHO VALUE EDUCATION, WHO HAVE WORKED VERY HARD FOR PAY FOR COLLEGE BUT HAVE STRUGGLED ECONOMICALLY.

AS THEY HELPED HER GO THROUGH COLLEGE, THEY STARTED TO RUN OU.

SHE'S TOO RICH TO GET FINANCIAL AID AND TOO POOR TO BE ABLE TO ACTUALLY AFFORD COLLEGE, AND SO SHE REALLY FOUND HERSELF WITHOUT ENOUGH TO EAT AND VERY FEW OPTIONS.

GROUP OF PEOPLE THAT SEEMS TO BE THAT WE DO HAVE, RIGHT?E DATA THERE IS A GAP IN OUR PERCEPTIONS OF WHO MIGHT BE IMPACTED BY THIS AND WHO ACTUALLY IS IMPACTED.

THAT'S RIGHT.

I MEAN, WE DO TEND TO THINK COLE STUDENTS WHEN WE THINK ABOUT THIS ISSUE AND WHEN WE THINK ABOUT FINANCIAL AID GENERALLY.

THAT IS IMPORTANT.

TODAY'S PELL GRANT RECIPIENTS ARE ABSOLUTELY BEING LEFT SHORT IN WAYS THAT ARE UNCONSCIONABLE, TOO, AND IT'S THIS MIDDLE CLASS THAT ALMOST 50% OF AMERICANS BELIEVE THEY'RE A PART OF, BUT WELL.IDDLE CLASS IS NOT DOING THEY'RE STRAPPED.

THEY'RE FACING A LOT OF ECONOMI.

WORK IS NOT PAYING THE WAY THAT THEY WOULD LIKE IT TO AND COLLEGE PRICES ARE OFTEN BEYOND REACH, AND SO THEY MIGHT THINK THAT THEY HAVE IT TOGETHER AND THEY GET TO COLLEGE AND THEN, AGAIN, THEY RUN SHORT AND THEY ARE MYSTIFIED AND, FRANKLY, A BIT STIGMATIZED, YOU KNOW, WHEN ACCESSING THIS HELP.OR OR

GIVE ME A SCALE OF THE PROBLEM.

HOW SIGNIFICANT IS FOOD SECURITY FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS ACROSS THE?

WELL, THE FIRST THING, AND THE GAO DOES EMPHASIZE THIS, WE DON'T ACTUALLY REALLY KNOW AT A NATIONAL LEVEL BECAUSE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT HAS NEVER COLLECTED DATA ON THIS IN ANY SYSTEMATIC WAY.

IN FACT, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES ARE ALSO NOT THIS.RED TO COLLECT DATA ON FROM SURVEYS THAT WE'VE DONE.

ONE COLLEGE AT A TIME ACROSS TH.

AND MYSELF AND MY TEAM AS WELL AS OTHER RESEARCHERS AROUND THE COUNTRY HAVE AMASSED A LARGE NUMBER OF COLLEGES OVER TIME IN MOST STATES WHERE WE HAVE DONE THESE SURVEYS AND THE RESULTS SEEM TO SUGGEST THAT AROUND 40 TO MAYBE EVEN 50% OF THE NATION'S COLLEGE STUDENTS ARE THEY'RE IN SCHOOL.CURITY WHILE

OUR GENERAL DEFINITION OF WHO IS A COLLEGE STUDENT IN AMERICA SEEMS TO BE COMPLETELY DIFFERENT, AT LEAST OUR PERCEPTION OF IT VERSUS WHAT THE REALITY IS.

THERE IS A BIG DISJUNCTURE.

WE CONTINUE TO THINK OF COLLEGEM REASONABLY WEALTHY FAMILIES WHO VALUE EDUCATION AND HAVE SENT THEIR CHILDREN OFF TO COLLEGE WITH SAVINGS IN THE BANK, SENT THEM TO LIVE IN RESIDENCE HALLS AND TO FOCUS ON THIS SCHOOLING, PURSUE ONE OR TWO MAJORS, ATTEND LECTURES AND EXTRACURRICULAR EVENTS AND HAVE A BASICALLY GOO.

ONLY 13% OF AMERICAN UNDERGRADUATES THESE DAYS LIVE ON A COLLEGE CAMPUS.

1 IN IN 4 HAS A CHILD.

ALMOST -- MORE THAN 1/3, ACTUALLY, ARE OVER THE AGE OF THEY DON'T LOOK THE WAY WE THINE SUPPORT WE POPULARLY THINK THEY.

IF 1/3 OF STUDENTS ARE GOING?

THESE THINGS ARE NOT ENTIREL.

THE PRICE OF TUITION RISING IS BEING DRIVEN PRIMARILY BECAUSE STATES HAVE CHANGED WHAT THE THEY'RE PAYING FOR HIGHER ED.

SO IN THE PAST, IF LET'S SAY COLLEGE COST $1, A STATE MIGHT SAY TO A STUDENT, WE'LL PUT IN 75 CENTS, YOU'LL PAY 25 CENTS AND OVER TIME THE STATE HAS CENTS, YOU PAY 50.L PAY 50 WE'LL PAY A QUARTER, YOU PAY 75, BUT THE FOOD ISSUE IS REALLY INE INCREASE IN LIVING COSTS IN THI.

SO THE FACT IS, YOU KNOW, AS HOUSING HAS GOTTEN MORE EXPENSIVE, IT'S CREATED OTHERPR.

SO HOW DO SCHOOLS DEAL WITH THIS IDEA OF KIDS WHO ARE IN THEIR CLASSROOMS -- NOT EVEN KIDS, ADULTS IN THEIR CLASSROOMS, THERE I AM FALLING BACK INTO THAT TRAP, WHO CAN'TF.

WHAT HAS CHANGED OVER TIME IS THAT WE HAVE DRAWN MORE ATTENTION TO THE STRUCTURAL FACTORS THAT ARE CREATING THIS PROBLEM AT SUCH A LARGE NUMBER OF COLLEGES THAT NO ONE COLLEGE COULD BE DOING SOMETHING WRONG THAT WOULD BE CAUSING THIS THEMSELVES.

AND AS THAT'S HAPPENED, IT'S ENABLED SOME COLLEGES TO BE ABL.

SO WE SEE A GROWING NUMBER OF CAMPUS FOOD PANTRIES.

THAT'S AT LEAST A CHARITABLE IMPULSE THAT'S BEING REALIZED.

WE'RE SEEING A GROWING NUMBER, ESPECIALLY AT COMMUNITY COLLEGES THAT ARE STARTING TO HELP STUDENTS ACCESS S.N.A.P.

PROGRAM, WHICH IS FOOD STAMPS WE'RE SEEING SOME THAT ARE TRYING OUT PROGRAMS LIKE FOOD SCHOLARSHIPS.

WE'RE ALSO SEEING SOME THAT ARE SUBSIDIZING THOSE BIGGER EXPENSES LIKE HOUSING.

ONE OF THE REASONS PEOPLE DON'T HAVE MONEY FOR FOOD IS BECAUSE THEY CAN'T PAY THEIR RENT.

RENT.

SO, FOR EXAMPLE, MY TEAM'S BEEN SO, FOR EXAMPLE, MY TEAM'S BEEN WORKING WITH A COUPLE HOUSING AUTHORITIES IN THIS COUNTRY THAT AUTHORITIES IN THIS COUNTRY THAT ARE WORKING TO OFFER MORE ARE WORKING TO OFFER MORE ARE WORKING TO OFFER MORE SUPPORT TO THE PEOPLE WHO LIVE SUPPORT TO THE PEOPLE WHO LIVE IN PUBLIC HOUSING WHILE THEY'RE IN COLLEGE SO THAT THEY CAN ACTUALLY REALLY LIVE AND EAT AND GO TO COLLEGE AND THEN, FRANKLY, GET OUT OF PUBLIC HOUSING, BECOME ECONOMICALLY SELF-SUFFICIENT.

BECAUSE IF THEY'RE NOT EATING, THEY'RE NOT STUDYING WELL, THEY'RE NOT PERFORMING GRADUATE.Y'RE NOT LIKELY TO

THEY'RE NOT.

YOU KNOW, THIS IS SUCH COMMON SENSE.

THERE ISN'T A TEACHER IN THISCOT TEACHER HASN'T EATEN THEY'RE GOING TO BE ACTIVE AND ENGAGE I.

WE HAVE NO REASON TO BELIEVE THAT A 25-YEAR-OLD OR AN 18-YEAR-OLD WOULD BE ANY DIFFERENT.

SO YOU AND YOUR TEAM HAVE NOW. LOOKING AT THIS FOR YEARS YOU HAD A BOOK OUT A FEW YEARS AGO.

YOU WERE FOLLOWING 3,000 DIFFERENT STUDENTS.

I WANT TO LOOK AT THE LONGER ARC HERE.

WORSE?INGS GETTING BETTER OR

PART OF THE REASON THAT IT'S REALLY HARD TO ME TO SAY IS WE WERE NOT TRACKING THESE ISSUES IN THIS WAY FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME.

I FOLLOWED A COHORT OF AT LEAST 3,000 STUDENTS.

WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE IN THE FIRST SEMESTER OF COLLEGE CAN BE VERY DIFFERENT THAN THE THIRD OR FOURTH OR FIFTH SEMESTERS.

THERE IS A LOT OF VOLATILITY AND FLUCTUATION.WE WORSE OFF IN 201E WERE IN SAY, 2017, OR 2012 OR IN 1982?

WE DON'T KNOW.

BECAUSE THESE ISSUES WERE NOT BEING EXAMINED.

BECAUSE WE'RE LOOKING NOW, I THINK OVER TIME WE'RE GOING TO BE ABLE TO SAY, HOPEFULLY WHETHER THINGS ARE GETTING BETTER OR WORSE, BUT WHAT I CAN TELL YOU IS THAT IT IS CLEAR THAT HIGHER EDUCATION IS GETTING IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR LESS RESOURCES PER STUDENT THAN IT EVER HAS.

WE HAVE MORE STUDENTS FROM FAMILIES WITH SIGNIFICANT ECONOMIC NEEDS AND WE HAVE STUDENTS WHO ARE HAVING A HARDER TIME GETTING WORK THAT PAYS DURING COLLEGE AND ENOUGH ACCESS TO FINANCIAL AID TO MAKE UP FOR THOSE FINANCIAL NEEDS.

SO THE CRISIS REALLY, FRANKLY, SHOULD STILL BE HERE.

IF IT'S UNDERRESOURCED LIKE THIS, IS THAT DRIVING PART OF WHAT THIS STUDENT LOAN DEBT SIZE HAS BALLOONED TO?

GIVE US SOME PERSPECTIVE HOW BIG THAT IS NOW.

YOU KNOW, THE STUDENT LOAN DEBT OVERALL SIZE MATTERS TO ME A LITTLE BIT LESS, FRANKLY, THAN THE NUMBER OF BORROWERS WHO ARE UNABLE TO REPAY THEIR LOANS.

AND THOSE PEOPLE REALLY INTERESTINGLY ARE NOT THE ONES WHO HAVE THE BIG DEBT.

NOT WHAT WE WOULD CALL BIG.

THEY HAVE LIKE $5,000 OF DEBT.

THE PROBLEM IS THEY ONLY GOT LIKE A YEAR OF COLLEGE EDUCATION.

SO THESE ARE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES WALKING AROUND WITH THE FEELING OF HAVING DROPPED OUT OF COLLEGE AND NOW OWING LOANS.

THEY HAVE NO ECONOMIC ABILITY TO MANY OF THEM ARE TAKING LOANS THEY SHOULD NEVER HAVE HAD TO TAKE.

THEY WERE PELL GRANT RECIPIENTS IN COLLEGE, WHICH WHEN THAT PROGRAM BEGAN MEANT THAT NOBODY SHOULD TAKE A LOAN.

WE NEVER INTENDED FOR PEOPLE WHO WERE LOW-INCOME WHEN THEY COME TO COLLEGE TO HAVE TO TAKE DEBT.

THEY WERE SUPPOSED TO GET A GRANT.

THE PELL PROGRAM NOW COVERS AND UNIVERSITIES' TOTAL COSTS.

EVERYONE STARTED OUT.HAN WHEN

EXACTLY.

IT'S A MAJOR DECLINE.

IT WAS SUPPOSED TO COVER 100%.W.

COLLEGE, THEY'VE GOT TO TAKE ON THE DEBT.

BUT THEIR CHANCES OF FINISHING ARE NOT THAT HIGH.

SO THEY COME OUT WITH DEBT AND NO DEGREE.

AND NOW THEY'RE IN POTENTIALLY AN EVEN WORSE SITUATION THAN THEY WERE IN THE FIRST PLACE BEFORE THEY WENT TO COLLEGE.

SOMEBODY'S GOING TO SAY, LOOK, WHAT ABOUT WORK STUDY?

I HAD TO GO TO SCHOOL AND GET A JOB, WORK 15, 20 HOURS A WEEK TO QUALIFY FOR BENEFITS.

THAT'S A GREAT IDEA.

THE PROBLEM IS THAT WORK STUDY IN THIS COUNTRY IS SO INCREDIBLY UNDERFUNDED, THAT HAS MORE PEOPLE HAVE NEEDED IT OVER TIME.

WE HAVE NOT INCREASED THE SUPPORT FOR IT.

AS A RESULT, ONLY 1 IN 10 STUDENTS IN PUBLIC COLLEGES OR UNIVERSITIES ARE GETTING SUPPORTED BY THE WORK STUDY PROGRAM.

AND, UNFORTUNATELY, WHEN WE'VE POINTED THAT OUT AND NOTED THAT WORK STUDY IS IMMENSELY POPULAR, IT ALIGNS WITH WHAT PEOPLE THINK SHOULD HAPPEN, YOU SHOULD WORK IN COLLEGE AND WORK ON CAMPUS.

INSTEAD OF THAT, THIS ADMINISTRATION HAS ACTUALLY TRIED TO GET RID OF THE WORK STUDY PROGRAM, RATHER THAN TO GROW IT TO MEET NEED.

ARE WE APPROACHING A SLIGHTLY -- ARE WE OVERVALUING COLLEGE?

MEANING, IS COLLEGE RIGHT FOR EVERYONE?

LOOK, I DON'T THINK TO SAY THAT COLLEGE SHOULD BE AFFORDABLE AND ACCESSIBLE FOR EVERYONE IS TO SAY EVERYONE HAS TO GO TO COLLEGE.

THOSE ARE TWO REALLY DIFFERENT THINGS.

BUT I THINK THAT ONE OF THE PROBLEMS WE HAVE, COLLEGE HAS BECOME THE PLACE AMERICA LOVES TO HATE, PARTLY BECAUSE AMERICA THINKS THAT WHAT EVERYBODY'S DOING IN COLLEGE IS PURSUING A DEGREE OF SOME SORT THEY DON'T FIND VALUABLE.

WHAT THEY DON'T SEEM TO REALIZEY NOW SEEK ARE PERFORMED BY PEOPLE WHO DO HAVE TO GET SOME SORT OF VOCATIONAL OR TECHNICAL TRAINING, AND THAT TRAINING IS OFFERED IN COLLEGE.

COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES AROUND THE COUNTRY ARE THE PLACES THAT PEOPLE WHO DO ALL SORTS OF THINGS, EVERYTHING FROM COSMETOLOGY TO TRUCK DRIVER TRAINING, THEY DO THESE THINGS IN COLLEGE.

THEY GO TO GET THEM.E PLACES SO TO SAY THAT COLLEGE IS UNAFFORDABLE IS NOT JUST TO SAY, WELL, YOU CAN'T GET THAT PHILOSOPHY DEGREE.

IT'S ALSO TO SAY YOU CAN'T GET THE CREDENTIAL YOU NEED TO BE AN AUTOMATIVE TECHNICIAN.

WHAT KIND OF SITUATION ARE WE GOING TO BE IN WHEN WE SAY, NO, LET'S CUT PEOPLE OFF FROM THOSE?

WHEN YOU LOOK AT THIS FROM A 30,000-FOOT VIEW, I MEAN, HIGHER EDUCATION WAS SUPPOSED TO BE THIS OPPORTUNITY TO MOVE SOCIAL MOBILITY, MOVE CLASS, RIGHT?

SO IT WAS -- COMMUNITY COLLEGE INFRASTRUCTURE WAS SUPPOSED TO BE THAT ALTERNATE PATH.

WHAT'S HAPPENED TO OUR IDEA OF WHAT COLLEGE IS CAPABLE OF DOING, ESPECIALLY AT A TIME WHERE IT SEEMS THAT WE'RE ALL SOCIALLY ASKING FOR THAT CREDENTIAL?

YEAH, SO I THINK THAT THE THEORY IS RIGHT. IDEA, THE EDUCATION CAN DO ALL THE THINGS YOU JUST DESCRIBED AND IT DID DO IT IN THE 20th CENTURY.

MANY OF THE THINGS WE ALL ENJOY TODAY, WHETHER IT'S OUR iPHONES OR THE INNOVATIONS THAT WE HAVE ON THE INTERNET, WERE CREATED BY THE EXPANSION OF EDUCATION.

EDUCATION PROPELS INNOVATION, BUT THE PROBLEM IS THAT WE NEVER REALLY ACTUALLY ALL AGREED TO THIS AT THE POLICY LEVEL.

AND SO WHILE WE, SOME OF US SET OUT TO MAKE POLICIES TO EXPAND EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION, THE FACT IS THAT STATES REALLY NEVER DID JOIN IN A FULL WAY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IN MAKING COLLEGE TRULY AFFORDABLE.

AND OVER TIME, DEPENDING ON THE ADMINISTRATION IN CHARGE IN WASHINGTON, THEY HAVE UNDERMINED THE FINANCING BEHIND THE IDEA.

SO THE IDEA HAS STOOD, THE IDEA HAS BEEN WIDELY HEARD BY THE PUBLIC, WHICH HAS SAID, YES, WE WANT COLLEGE, BUT WE DID NOT BUILD AND SUSTAIN A FINANCING SYSTEM TO ACTUALLY BACK UP THAT IDEA.

AND I THINK THAT'S THE TASK OF THE 21st CENTURY.

IT'S TIME TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO LIVE UP TO THE PROMISE, HOW TO GET TOGETHER AND UNDERSTAND THAT THIS IS NOT A MUSHY SOCIAL JUSTICE ISSUE.

THIS IS AN ECONOMIC ISSUE.

WE'RE EITHER GOING TO HAVE TO REBUILD A LOT OF SOCIAL PROGRAMS TO SUPPORT PEOPLE WHO CAN'T GET A JOB, ARE LIVING IN POVERTY, ARE GOING TO HAVE HIGH MEDICAL EXPENSES, GOING TO BE, QUOTE, UNQUOTE, ON THE DOLE, OR WE CAN GIVE THEM A VIABLE PATH TO SELF-SUFFICIENCY, WHICH WE KNOW RUNS THROUGH EDUCATION.

SEEMS LIKE THE LATTER IS PROBABLY THE MORE COST EFFECTIVE THING TO DO AND IT'S WHAT EACH INDIVIDUAL PERSON IS CHOOSING FOR THEIR CHILDREN.

THE QUESTION RIGHT NOW IS WHAT THEY'RE GOING TO CHOOSE FOR OTHER PEOPLE'S CHILDREN.

THANKS FOR JOINING US.

THANKS FOR HAVING ME.

About This Episode EXPAND

Christiane Amanpour speaks with Carlos Vecchio to discuss the struggle for democracy in Venezuela; CNN Correspondent Ryan Young and climate scientist Richard Alley about the extreme temperatures in the Midwest; and director Pawel Pawlikowski about his new film “Cold War.” Hari Sreenivasan speaks with Sociology Professor Sara Goldrick-Rab about the struggles students face.

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