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December 2nd, 2008
Timeline: CINEMA'S EXILES

By Karen Thomas, Writer, Producer and Director of CINEMA’S EXILES: FROM HITLER TO HOLLYWOOD

Month/dayYearEvent
May 251917The German High Command decides on the need to consolidate Germany’s film industry. The studio will be called Universum Film AG, or Ufa
November 111918World War I ends with Germany’s defeat
November 171918Armistice signed
1918Disgusted with the terms of the Armistice, Adolf Hitler decides to go into politics
1918-19Richard Werner Heymann and Frederick Hollander begin composing satirical songs that criticize contemporary German society for director Max Reinhardt’s Sound and Smoke cabaret
June 281919The Treaty of Versailles is signed
February 261920The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari premieres in Berlin (Erich Pommer, producer, Fritz Lang, scenarist; Conrad Veidt, actor; Hans von Twardowski, actor)
1920Hollywood producer Samuel Goldwyn sails to Europe to find pictures for the American market. He goes to Berlin to see Caligari.
March 191921The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari premieres in New York New York’s Capitol Theater. The box office hit in Germany is a box office disaster in America
October 61921Destiny premieres in Berlin (Erich Pommer, producer; Fritz Lang, director) The critics in Europe rave
1921Paul Kohner leaves Czechoslovakia to work with Carl Laemmle at Universal Studios
March 41922Nosferatu premieres in Berlin (F.W. Murnau, director; Karl Freund, camera)
December 221922Director Ernst Lubitsch is invited to Hollywood to work with Mary Pickford; he arrives in New York on SS President Roosevelt
late 1922/1923Actress Pola Negri goes to Hollywood
July – November1923Between July and November, inflation in Germany upends the economy
February 141924Die Niebelungen premieres in Berlin (Fritz Lang, director)
June 61924Germany accepts the Dawes Plan; the German mark is stabilized
1924The German film industry (UFA) is in difficulty; it needs financial assistance
December1924Nazi Party candidates gain four seats in the Reichstag (Germany’s Parliament)
December 231924The Last Laugh premieres in Berlin (Producer, Erich Pommer; F.W. Murnau, director; Karl Freund, cinematographer) When The Last Laugh is screened in America, telegrams pour in from Hollywood, “Where and with what cameras did you shoot this film?” Karl Freund has strapped the camera to his belly, becoming a human dolly
1924Actress Greta Garbo leaves Germany for Hollywood after filming a socially realistic picture The Joyless Street (director, G.W. Pabst)
July 181925Adolph Hitler publishes Mein Kampf, volume 1
1925Adolf Hitler reorganizes the Nazi Party, which now has 27,000 members
1925Ufa studio is deeply in debt. American studios, sensing an opportunity to cripple the studio that had become their major rival in Europe, offered to “help.” In 1925, MGM and Paramount proposed to cover UFA’s bank payment in exchange for the right to
use UFA studios and to “borrow” UFA personnel for projects in the United States
January 101926Erich Pommer leaves Ufa; in America, he joins Famous Players-Lasky Company, producing Hotel Imperial which stars Pola Negri
1926Director Michael Curtiz leaves Germany for Hollywood; he signs a long-term contract with Warner Brothers
1926Director Josef von Sternberg goes to Hollywood as part of an agreement that provides money to Ufa
1926Director F.W. Murnau goes to Hollywood to work for Fox studio
Summer1926Billy Wilder moves from Vienna to Berlin for a career in film
January 101927Metropolis premieres in Berlin (Erich Pommer, producer; Fritz Lang, director; cinematographer, Eugen Schuefftan; cinematographer, Karl Freund; actress, Brigitte Helm) The picture is written by Lang and his wife Thea von Harbou. It is Adolf Hitler’s favorite movie
March 61927Metropolis premieres in New York
September 231927Sunrise premieres in the United States (director, F.W. Murnau; scenarist, Carl Mayer; art direction, E.G. Ulmer)
October 61927The Jazz Singer premieres in the United States. It is a sound picture, and one of the first
May 201928The Nazi Party wins 14 seats in the Reichstag
November1928Joseph Goebbels takes over propaganda for the Nazi Party
March 121929Asphalt premieres in Berlin (Erich Pommer, producer; Joe May, director.) With its stylized art direction and cinematography, and desperate characters, Asphalt sets the stage for film noir
October1929Fred Zinneman leaves Europe for Hollywood at the age of 22
1929Karl Freund leaves Germany for Hollywood
1929Josef von Sternberg returns to Germany to direct The Blue Angel
December1929The Nazi Party now has 178,000 members
January 91930Henry Blanke arrives in the United States on the SS Bremen
January 301930Josef von Sternberg returns to Hollywood on the Bremen; The Blue Angel is denounced by Ufa management; the premiere is delayed
February 41930People On Sunday premieres in Berlin (director, Robert Siodmak; writer Curt Siodmak; writer, Billy Wider; cinematographer, Eugen Schuefftan; assistant camera, Fred Zinneman; Edgar G. Ulmer)
April 11930The Blue Angel premieres in Berlin (Erich Pommer, producer; Josef von Sternberg, director; Marlene Dietrich, actor; Emil Jannings, actor; Robert Liebmann, writer; Frederick Hollander, composer, Franz Waxman, orchestrator) The Blue Angel is Ufa’s first major sound picture
April 11930Marlene Dietrich leaves Germany to work with von Sternberg in Hollywood immediately after premiere of The Blue Angel
April 211930All Quiet on the Western Front premieres in the United States (Reiner Maria Remarque, director; Fred Zinnemann, extra)
May 31930Asphalt premieres in New York
September1930Nazi Party gains 107 seats from the Center in national elections, winning 18% of the vote
December 41930All Quiet on the Western Front premieres in Berlin; the opening is sabotaged by Nazi
sympathisers
December 51930The Blue Angel premieres in New York
December1930Unemployment in Germany reaches 4 million
1931The Nazi Party now is 800,000 strong; it is the second largest political party in Germany
February 121931Dracula premieres in the United States (Karl Freund, cinematographer)
May 111931M premieres in Berlin (Seymour Nebenzal, producer; Fritz Lang, director; Peter Lorre, actor) M is Fritz Lang’s first talking picture, and introduced stage actor Peter Lorre to an international audience
February 211932Murders In the Rue Morgue premieres in the United States (Karl Freund, cinematographer)
July 311932The Nazi Party wins 230 seats in the Reichstag
October 301932Actor Francis Lederer arrives in the United States on the SS Roma
December 221932F.P. 1 Doesn’t Answer premieres in Berlin (Erich Pommer, producer; Walter Reisch,
writer; Curt Siodmak, novel; Peter Lorre, actor)
January 121933Director E.A. Dupont arrives in the United States at the invitation of Carl Laemmle (Universal Pictures)
January 301933Adolf Hitler is appointed German Chancellor by the President of Germany. That night, his supporters celebrate with a torchlight parade down Unter den Linden
January 301933Producer Erich Pommer secretly signs a deal with Fox-Europa Studios so he can leave Germany.
February 221933Ich und die Kaiserin premieres in Berlin ( Erich Pommer, producer; Frederick
Hollander, composer and director; Walter Reisch and Robert Leibman, writers;
Franz Waxman, composer; Conrad Veidt, actor; Madys Christians, actor)
February 271933Berlin’s Reichstag building burns in a suspicious fire. Billy Wilder decides it is time to leave Berlin. He heads to Paris
March 121933The first concentration camp established at Oranienberg outside Berlin
1933Frederick Hollander leaves for Paris
1933Franz Waxman is beaten up by Nazi thugs on his way home from work in Berlin; he leaves for Paris
1933Joe May and his wife Mia leave for Paris. Mia May glues her “fake” jewels on the back of her pet turtle (in the fashion of the time) to sneak them out of the country
March 141933Josef Goebbels is named Minister for National Education and Propaganda
March 201933A concentration camp is built at Dachau
March 231933The German parliament passes Hitler’s Enabling Law. It suspends democracy and establishes Hitler’s power
March 281933Joseph Goebbels sees The Last Testament of Dr. Mabuse (Fritz Lang, director) and decides to ban it
March 281933At the Berlin Kaiserhof Hotel Goebbels says art must conform to certain society’s values
March 281933Joseph Goebbels publishes an appeal to boycott all Jewish businesses
March 291933The Ufa Board of Directors adopts a resolution to dismiss Jewish coworkers
March/April1933Ufa cancels the contract of Erik Charell, director of hit movie The Congress Dances. In America, he will write Ziegfield Follies (1945)
March/April1933Ufa cancels the contracts of writers Franz Schulz and Robert Adolf Stemme
March/April1933Ufa cancels the contracts of writers Robert Liebmann and Hans Muller. Liebmann will die in a concentration camp
March/April1933Ufa does not renew director Ludwig Berger’s contract. Berger will direct The Thief of
Baghdad
in 1940 for Alexander Korda
1933Composer Werner Richard Heymann, a pacifist, leaves Germany; Ufa tries to get the director of the Ufa orchestra to stay. He will not agree. The Nazis shoot the Heymann’s dog
By April1933Actors Elisabeth Bergner, Conrad Veidt, Fritz Kortner and Peter Lorre are already out of the country or preparing to leave Germany
1933Directors Hanns Schwarz, Wilhelm Thiele and Erik Charrell leave Germany
1933Universal Pictures representative in Berlin, Paul Kohner, and his wife Lupita, smuggle money across the frontier to friends and former colleagues in Paris. On one such trip to Czechoslovakia, they are pulled from the train and searched. They do not
return to Germany, but to Los Angeles
April 11933Adolf Hitler orders a boycott of Jewish owned businesses
April1933Conductor Otto Klemperer his family leave for America. His son Werner will become an actor in Hollywood
April 41933Henry Koster leaves for Paris, having slugged a bank official in Berlin
April 201933Fritz Lang and Thea Von Harbou dissolve their marriage
April 261933Herman Goering forms the Gestapo
April 301933Werner Richard Heymann arrives in the United States
May 101933In Berlin and elsewhere, the books of Jewish authors are burned; by October, the purchase of works by Jewish authors will be considered an act of treason
May1933Composer Frederick Hollander sails from France for America
end of May1933Erich Pommer leaves Berlin for Paris. He is accompanied to the train by Ministry officials. Fearing deception, he leaves the train in Hannover, and crosses the border by car
June 51933Frederick Hollander begins working in Hollywood
1933Cinematographer Eugen Schufftan leaves Germany; he will arrive in the United States in 1940
1933Bertholt Brecht leaves Germany for Denmark, then Paris, then Sweden. He will arrive in the United States in 1940
1933Conrad Veidt leaves Berlin for London. He will arrive in the United States in 1940
1933Fritz Lang leaves Berlin for Paris, where he directs Lilliom (Erich Pommer, producer; Fritz Lang, director; Robert Liebmann, writer; Franz Waxman, composer; Rudy Mate, cinematographer)
1933Max Ophuls (born Max Oppenheimer) goes into exile in France. He will arrive in the United States in 1941
1933Actor Fritz Kortner leaves for England; he will later leave for the United States
1933Director Sam Spiegel leaves Berlin for Paris
1933Curt Siodmak leaves Berlin for England
1933Robert Siodmak leaves Germany for Paris, then England. He will arrive in the United States in 1939
1933Actor Sig Arno leaves for America. He will work on Hollywood and on Broadway
1933Director G.W. Pabst leaves Germany for France, then sails to the United States. Unhappy with the Hollywood movie industry, he returns to France. After several years, he wants to return to America. He travels to Austria to say goodbye to his mother. War breaks out and he must stay. He makes films in Germany
June 281933The Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda declares anyone who wants to participate in the production of German film must be of German descent and be a German citizen.
August1933Actress Hedy Lamarr marries armaments dealer Fritz Mandl
December 231933Viktor und Viktoria premieres in Berlin (Reinhold Schunzel, director)
December1933Director Joe May, now in Hollywood, cables Billy Wilder that Columbia Pictures will buy his story Pam-Pam, pay him $150 to write screenplay, and pay for a one way ticket to Hollywood
1934Austrian composer Erich Wolfgang Korngold arrives in Hollywood to work with director Max Reinhardt on A Midsummer Night’s Dream
January 221934Billy Wilder buys a ticket on the Aquitania, an English vessel, in order to learn the language
April 101934Erich Pommer arrives in the United States on the Ile de France
April 271934Liliom released in Paris (Erich Pommer, producer; Fritz Lang, director, Franz Waxman, composer; Rudy Mate, cinematographer)
1934Fritz Lang receives an offer from David O Selznick to direct for MGM; he will arrive in the United States on June 12, 1934
May 161934Franz Waxman leaves France on the Ile de France to finish the picture Music in the Air in Hollywood. He arrives in Los Angeles on May 26, and reports to work that day
July 181934Peter Lorre boards the Majestic in Southampton and sails for New York. When he arrives six days later, the press will be waiting
July 251934Austria’s Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss is assassinated
August 21934German President Paul von Hindenburg dies; on August 19, Adolf Hitler becomes President and Chancellor of Germany
December 131934Music in the Air premieres in the United States (Erich Pommer, producer; Joe May, director; Billy Wilder, writer; Franz Waxman, music director; Walter Reisch, assistant
producer.)
1934Many of Adolph Hitler’s opponents are assassinated in Germany
1934Curt Bois leaves Vienna for the New York stage; he will later go to Hollywood
1934Franz Waxman is invited to a Christmas party at Salka Viertel’s home. There, he meets director Robert Wiene, who asks Waxman to score his new film, The Bride of
Frankenstein
January 81935Ecstasy is released in Germany (Gustav Machaty, director; Hedy Lamarr, actor)
January 131935In a high voter turnout, the Saar plebiscite unites neutral Saarland with Germany
April 221935The Bride of Frankenstein premieres in the United States
1935Henry Koster directs Affairs of Maupassant (Felix Jackson, writer; S.Z. Sakall, actor) in Vienna
May 31935The Black Cat premieres in the United States
1935Henry Koster shoots Katharina die Letzle (Joe Pasternak, producer; Felix Jackson, writer; Hans Salter, composer; Franceska Gaal, actor) in Budapest
July 121935Mad Love, a horror picture, premieres in the United States (Karl Freund, director; Peter Lorre, actor)
September 151935Germany passes the “Nuremberg Laws”. They define anyone having three or four Jewish grandparents as being Jewish. The Laws revoke German citizenship to all Jews; they forbid sexual relations or marriage between Jews and those of German blood; they deprive Jews of most political rights. Soon the laws will be extended to include gypsies and other non-German groups
November 111935A Night at the Opera premieres in the United States with music composed by Walter Jurmann and Bronislaw Kaper, who had been “discovered” in Paris by Louis B. Mayer a few months before, and brought to Hollywood on contract to MGM
November 151935A Midsummer Night’s Dream is released (William Dieterle, director; Erich Wolfgang Korngold, composer (after Mendelssohn))
November 171935Franz Waxman takes over the music department at Universal
1935Frederick Hollander lands job as a staff composer at Paramount; the contract runs until 1940
1935Oskar Homolka leaves Germany for England; in 1937 he will sail for the United States, to work in Hollywood and on the New York stage
1935Paul Henreid, having been offered a job at UFA in Berlin, refuses, as he would have had to join the Nazi Party. He returns to Austria and leaves for England. He will come to the United States after making Goodbye, Mr. Chips in London
February 101936Germany reoccupies the demilitarized (Versailles Treaty) industrial center, Rhineland. The occupation is met with no objection
March 71936Dorothy Parker and Donald Ogden Stewart organize the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League. Fritz Lang, Ernst Lubitsch, and several thousand join the
campaign. When Leni Riefenstahl arrives in Los Angeles to promote her film Olympiad, the League will mount a protest
May 11936Italian forces take Ethiopia
May 91936Fritz Lang’s first American picture, Fury premieres (Fritz Lang, director; Franz Waxman, composer)
June 121936The Spanish Civil War begins
July 181936Anthony Adverse premieres in Los Angeles. (Erich Wolfgang Korngold, composer.) The film wins the Academy Award for Best Scoring
July 291936Olympic games begin in Berlin (Hitler removes the No Jews Allowed signs in the months before, then replaces them after Games)
August 11936Hitler elected w/ 99% of the vote. All opposition parties have been disbanded by this time. Jews cannot vote.
1936Editor Rudi Fehr arrives in New York; he had been told that Germany would not be safe for him after the
Olympics
1936Jews banned from working in the Austrian cinema and in the theater
1936Three Smart Girls premieres in the United States. (Joseph Pasternak, producer; Henry Koster, director; Bronislau Kaper and Walter Jurmann, composers of the songs “My Heart is Singing,” and “Someone to Care for Me.” Three Smart Girls is a smash hit, and rescues Universal from financial ruin
Sept 10 – Oct 221936Mussolini and Hitler create the Berlin-Rome Axis
November 11936Germany begins to build the Siegfried Line
1936Erich Wolfgang Korngold receives the Academy Award for Best Scoring for Anthony Adverse
1937Principal photography begins on One Hundred Men and A Girl (Joe Pasternak, producer; Henry Koster, director; Frederick Hollander, composer)
May 15 – July 241937A concentration camp built at Buchenwald
July 251937Writer Curt Siodmak arrives in Hollywood from London.
August 191937Composer Hans J. Salter arrives in the United States on the SS Statendam
October 161937Reinhold Schunzel arrives in the USA; returns to Germany in 1953
December 81937La Habanera premieres in Berlin (Douglas Sirk, director) Douglas Sirk has remained in Germany to advance his career, despite having a Jewish wife
December 181937Douglas Sirk (Detlef Sierck) slips out of Germany with Jewish wife Hilde Jary; in 1941 he begins directing in Hollywood as Doug Sirk
1937Actor Paul Andor, having become involved in German politics, leaves. Ernst Lubitsch will him work. In America, Paul Andor performs as John Voight to protect his father, still in Germany
1937Actor Hedy Lamarr leaves her husband and her home in Vienna in the dead of night. She takes the train to Paris. There, she will accept an offer from MGM, and sail to America
1937Cinematographer Franz Planer leaves Austria for the United States
1937Karl Freund receives Academy Award for Best Cinematraphy for The Good Earth; Luise Rainer receives Academy Award for Best Actress for The Good Earth; Dmitri Tiomkin is nominated for Best Music for Lost Horizon; Frederick Hollander receives nomination for Best Song for Artists and Models; One Hundred Men and A Girl is nominated for Best Picture; William Dieterle is nominated for Best Director for The Life of Emile Zola
January1938Warner Brothers asks Erich Wolfgang Korngold to score The Adventures of Robin Hood. Korngold leaves Vienna for Hollywood with his wife and one of his sons. He screens the picture, and tells Warner Brothers he does not want to write the music. He will return to Vienna with his family
January 291938Hitler orders troops into Austria
1938Erich Wolfgang Korngold does not return to Austria. After making sure that his son can get to safety in Switzerland, he writes the score for Robin Hood
March 121938Austria is declared part of German Reich
March 131938The Adventures of Robin Hood premieres in Los Angeles. Erich Wolfgang Korngold receives the Academy Award for best original score
April 251938Actor Felix Bressart arrives in the United States
July 111938Hitler orders the mobilization of the German Army
September 29-301938British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlin signs Munich Agreement. Germany will take control of Czechoslovakia
September1938Germany begins stamping passports of German Jews with a “J”
October1938Composer Ernest Goldner (Gold) leaves Austria for the United States
October 151938Germany invades Sudentenland; Joachim von Ribbentrop is named Foreign Minister
November 91938Kristallnacht (the Night of Broken Glass) takes place in Germany; 7500 Jewish businesses are destroyed
November 91938All Jewish businesses ordered to cease business by this date
November 121938Actor John Mylong-Muenz arrives in the United States
November 191938Aspiring Austrian diplomat Helmut Dantine arrives in the United States from Vienna. He had been put into a concentration camp for anti-Hitler activism. His parents arranged for his rescue, and sent him to Los Angeles, where he became an actor
December 231938The Siegfried Line of defensive tanks and forts is constructed by Germany along its western frontier
1938The European Film Fund is created to assist arriving emigres. Ernst Lubitsch, Charlotte and William Dieterle, Paul and Lupita Kohner are among the many who actively support the European Film Fund. Anyone who had a job was asked to pledge 1% of his or ear earnings to the emergency fund
1938The House Un-American Activities Commitee announces that it will hold hearings about alleged communist influences in Hollywood
1938Actor Ludwig Stoessel, having been imprisoned several times in Austria, escapes
1938Erich Wolfgang Korngold receives the Academy Award for Best Music for The Adventures of Robin Hood; Franz Waxman is nominated for Best Music and Best Scoring for The Young At Heart
1939Franz Waxman and Billy Wilder become American citizens
1939Hedy Lamarr becomes an American citizen
January 221939Actor Sig Arno arrives in the United States
February 161939Actor Louis V. Arco (Louis Altschul) arrives in the United States
March 151939Germany invades Czechoslovakia
April1939The Republicans surrender to General Franco, ending the Spanish Civil War
April 271939The anti-Nazi picture Confessions of a Nazi Spy premieres in Los Angeles (Anatole Litwak, director; Francis Lederer, actor). Fifteen exiles appeared in this anti-Nazi picture, the firs film to openly warn of the Nazi menace. Subsequent to the studio’s press conference announcing the picture, Groucho Marx saluted Warner Brothers as ‘the only studio with any guts.”
June1939Marlene Dietrich becomes American citizen
August1939Ufa’s distribution managers order that new productions now be supplied with Polish subtitles
August 251939Britain and Poland sign a Mutual Assistance Treaty
August 311939The British fleet mobilizes; civilian evacuations begin from London
September 11939Germany invades Poland and terminates its non-aggression pact with Russia
September 11939The Hunchback of Notre Dame opens the Cannes Film Festival. The Festival closes the very same day, as word arrives of Germany’s aggression (William Dieterle, director; Bruno Frank, adaptation)
September 21939Marlene Dietrich is one of many Americans stranded in Europe. At the last minute, she gets passage back to the United States on the Queen Mary. Writer Salka Viertel has returned the the United States the day before
September 21939The German ship Bremen leaves New York harbor in dead of night, heading back to Germany, empty, save for the crew.
September 31939Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand declare war on Germany
September 51939The United States declares neutrality
September 271939Poland surrenders to Germany
October 31939Ludwig Stoessel arrives in Hollywood from London
October 61939Ninotchka premieres in Hollywood. Ernst Lubitsch has hired his former colleagues and countrymen on the picture (Ernst Lubitsch, director; Billy Wilder, writer; Walter Reisch, writer; Werner Richard Heymann, composer; Greta Garbo, actor, Sig Ruman, Actor, Alexander Granach, actor, Paul Andor, actor.) Six cast members are emigres
December 291939Destry Rides Again premieres in the United States. (Joseph Pasternak, producer; Marlene Dietrich, actor; Frederick Hollander, composer)
1939Albert Basserman, one of Germany’s most esteemed actors, leaves for Hollywood. He is 72 years old, and speaks no English
1939Erich Wolfgang Korngold is nominated for Best Scoring for The Private Lives of Elisabeth and Essex; Dmitri Tiomkin is nominated for Best Scoring for Mr. Smith Goes to Washington; Felix Jackson is nominated for Original Story for Bachelor Mother; Walter Reisch and Billy Wilder are nominated for Original Story for Ninotchka
February 191940Austrian actor Ludwig Donath arrives in the United States
April 91940The horror picture The Invisible Man Returns premieres (Joe May, director; Curt Siodmak, writer; Hans J. Salter, composer)
May 101940Germany invades rance, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands; in England, Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister
May 151940Holland surrenders to the Germans
May 281940Hbelgium surrenders to the Germans
June 31940Germans bomb Paris
June 101940Norway surrenders to the Nazis; Italy declares war on Britain and France
June 131940Robert Siodmak leaves Paris one day before the Germans arrive
June 141940Germans enter Paris
June 221940France signs an armistice with the Nazis
June 231940Hitler tours Paris
June 281940Great Britain recognizes Charles deGaulle as leader of the Free French
July 101940The Battle of Britain begins
1940William Dieterle pays $10,000 to German government for the release of actors Jacob and Louise Fleck (he Jewish) from Dachau and Buchenwald. They emigrate to Shanghai
August 171940Germany declares a blockade of British Isles
September 71940German blitzagainst England begins
September 161940American conscription begins
November 51940President Franklin Roosevelt re-elected
December 271940The horror picture The Invisible Woman premieres (Joe May, writer; Curt Siodmak, writer)
1940Rudolph Mate is nominated for Best Cinematography for Foreign Correspondent; Albert Basserman is nominated for Best Actor in a Supporting Role in Foreign Correspondent; Franz Waxman is nominated for Best Music for Rebecca; Werner Richard Heymann is nominated for Best Music for One Million BC; Erich Wolfgang Korngold is nominated for Best Scoring for The Sea Hawk; Walter Reisch is nominated for Original Story for Comrade X
June 221941Germany invades Soviet Union
July 311941Hermann Goring orders Reinhard Heydrich to prepare the “Final Solution”
August 141941Great Britain and the United States announce the Atlantic Charter
August 201941The German siege of Leningrad begins
September 11941Jews are required to wear a yellow star
September 31941First experimental use of gas chambers at Auschwitz
September 191941The German Army takes Kiev
September 291941The Nazis murder 33,771 Jews at Kiev
October 231941Heinrich Himmler orders a ban on Jewish emigration from German occupied areas
October1941Germany begins the mass deportations of Jews
October 301941The German Army reaches Sevastopol
November 151941Forced labor camp created at Treblinka, Poland
December 71941The Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor
December 81941The United States and Britain declare war on Japan
December 101941Germany declares war on the United States
December 121941The horror picture The Wolf-Man premieres in the United States (Curt Siodmak, writer) It quietly warns of the Nazi menace
1941Peter Lorre becomes American citizen
1941Karl Freund is nominated for Best Cinemotography for The Chocolate Soldier; Rudolph Mate is nominated for Best Cinematography for That Hamilton Woman; Karl Freund is nominated for Best Cinematography for Blossoms in the Dust; Werner Richard Heymann is nominated for Best Music for That Uncertain Feeling; Franz Waxman is nominated for Best Music for Dr. Jeckyl and Mr. Hyde and for Best Music for Suspicion; Miklos Rozsa is nominated for Best Music for Lydia; Billy Wilder is nominated for Original Story for Ball of Fire
January 201942Reinhold Heydrich holds Wansee Conference to discuss “Final Solution”
March 61942The anti-Nazi film To Be or Not To Be premieres in Los Angeles (Ernst Lubitsch, director; Werner Richard Heymann, composer; Rudolph Mate, cinematographer; Sig Ruman,actor; Felix Bressart, actor; Alexander Granach, actor) The cast includes nine émigré actors. The picture wrapped production on December 23, 1941 — two weeks after Pearl Harbor — and was released in March 1942. The public did respond well to the comedy, now that America was at war
April 231942German air raids begin over cathedral cities in Britain
May 31942Deportations from central Poland begin to the Sobibor killing camp. They continue thru November 1943 and include the residents of dismantled Jewish ghettos
May 81942The German summer offensive begins in the Crimea
May 161942German field marshal Erwin Rommel begins offensive against Gazala Line in Africa
May 211942Tortilla Flat premieres (Hedy Lamarr, actress; Karl Freund, cinematographer; Franz Waxman, composer)
May 271942SS Leader Reinhold Heydrich is attacked in Prague
May 251942Production starts on the anti-Nazi picture Casablanca
June1942The mass gassing of Jews begins in Auschwitz
June 101942The Nazis liquidate Lidice, Poland in reprisal for Heydrich’s assassination
June 301942Rommel reaches El Alamein near Cairo, Egypt
July 91942The German Army begins drive toward Stalingrad
July 221942First deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto to concentration camps; Treblinka extermination camp opened
August 171942The anti-Nazi picture Berlin Correspondent premieres. The cast includes 12 émigré actors
1942All German film production is now incorporated in UFA
September1942Fred Zinneman’s father is killed
September 131942The Battle of Stalingrad begins. The battle will last until 2 February 1943
November 111942The Germans and Italians invade unoccupied Vichy France
November 271942Casablanca premieres in New York (Michael Curtiz, director; Henry Blanke, associate producer; Max Steiner, composer; Peter Lorre, actor; Conrad Veidt, actor; S.Z. Sakall, actor; Helmut Dantine, Marcel Dalio, actor; Curt Bois, actor; Trude Berliner, actor; Louis V. Arco, ctor;actor; Madeleine LeBeau, actor; Leonid Kinsky, actor; Ilke Gruening, actor; Lotte Palfi, actor; Ludwig Stossel, actor; Hans von Twardowski, actor; Wolfgang Zilzer, actor) The cast included 17 emigre actors
December 21942Professor Enrico Fermi sets up an atomic reactor in Chicago
December 131942Rommel withdraws from El Agheila
December 171942British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden tells the British House of Commons of mass executions of Jews by Nazis; U.S. declares those crimes will be avenged
1942Rudolph Mate is nominated for Best Cinematography for The Pride of the Yankees; Dmitri Tiomkin is nominated for Best Music for The Corsican Brothers; Werner Richard Heymann is nominated for Best Music for To Be or Not To Be; Miklos Rozsa is nominated for Best Music for The Jungle Book; Frederick Hollander is nominated for Best Music for Talk of the Town; Hans J. Salter is nominated for Best Scoring for It Started With Eve
1943Conrad Veidt dies at age 50
January 101943The Soviets begin an offensive against the Germans in Stalingrad
January 12 – 141943Casablanca conference between Churchill and Roosevelt. Roosevelt announces the war can end only with an unconditional German surrender
February 21943The German surrender at Stalingrad is the first big defeat of German forces
March 231943The anti-Nazi film Hangmen Also Die premieres (Fritz Lang, director; Bertholt Brecht and Fritz Lang, writers; Hans Eisler, composer; Lang; writers, Lang and Brecht; composer, Eisler; Hans von Twardowski, actor) The cast includes ten émigré actors
April 211943The horror picture I Walked With A Zombie premieres (Curt Siodmak, writer)
May 131943German and Italian troops surrender in North Africa
June 101943The anti-Nazi picture Hitler’s Madman premieres (Seymour Nebenzahl, producer; Doug Sirk) The cast included six émigré actors
June 111943Himmler orders the liquidation of all Jewish ghettos in Poland
June1943Belzec extermination camp, responsible for exterminating Jews from Southern Poland ghettos is dismantled. Bodies exhumed and burned; forced laborers either shot or sent to Sobibor to be gassed. German plow over and cover as farm with crops and manor house.
July1943Treblinka II killing camp operations are suspended; prisoners are returned to Treblinka l forced labor camp
September1943Fred Zinnemann’s mother is killed
September 81943The Italian surrender is announced
September 191943The anti-Nazi picture The Strange Death of Adolf Hitler premieres in Los Angeles (Joe May and Fritz Kortner, writers) The picture includes 18 émigré actors
December 311943Marlene Dietrich puts her silverware, clothing, furniture, jewels and European porcelain up for auction to pay her family expenses while she goes off to war
1943Casablanca receives the Academy Award for Best Picture; Michael Curtiz receives the Academy Award for Best Director for Casablanca. Rudolph Mate is nominated for Best Cinematography for Sahara; Hans J. Salter is nominated for Best Music in The Amazing Mrs. Holliday; Hans Eisler is nominated for Best Music for Hangmen Also Die; Dmitri Tiomkin is nominated for Best Music for Moon and Sixpence; Hans Dreier is nominated for Art Direction for Five Graves to Cairo and for Art Direction for For Whom the Bell Tolls; Ernst Lubitsch is nominated for Best Directing for Heaven Can Wait
January1944Marlene Dietrich goes to New York to prepare her USO act with Danny Thomas and others. They rehearse in a shabby rehearsal hall above Lindy’s, off-Broadway
January 171944First attack towards Casino, Italy
January 221944The Allies land at Anzio
January 271944Leningrad is relieved after a 900-day siege
January 281944The film noir picture Phantom Lady premieres (Robert Siodmak, director; Hans J. Salter, music director) Hollywood is increasingly making taut thrillers and gritty stories of crime or detection characterized by their distinctive lighting, murky atmospherics, and themes of alienation and despair. Nearly every emigre will have at least one film noir credit to his or her name
April 111944Marlene Dietrich presents her first overseas performaance for the troops at Algiers Opera House
April 261944The anti-Nazi picture Hitler Gang premieres. The film includes 30 émigré actors
May 251944Germans retreat from Anzio as Allies move forward in Italy.
June 61944D-Day. The Allies land on the French Coast
June 61944Marlene Dietrich announces Allied landings at Normandy Beach to USO in North Africa
June1944Marlene Dietrich and her troupe are ordered back to New York. Dietrich records popular American songs with German lyrics for “Operation Musac”, a dummy corporation set up by the Office of Strategic Services. The Allies beamed the soft propaganda recordings across the English Channel into Europe and unsuspecting German audiences
July 141944Last killings take place at Chelmo extermination camp; camp is dismantled
July 181944U.S. troops reach St. Lo
July 231944Russians liberate Majdanek extermination camp; between 95,000 and 130,000 have been killed there
end July1944Soviet troops overrun the site of the labor camp and killing center at Treblinka II
August 251944Paris is liberated. Marlene Dietrich and her troupe return to Europe
Sept 1-41944Verdun, Dieppe, Artois, Rouen, Abbeville, Antwerp and Brussels are liberated by the Allies
Sept 61944The film noir picture Double Indemnity premieres (Billy Wilder, director; Billy Wilder, co-writer; Miklos Rozsa, composer)
September1944American reporters visit the abandoned Majdanek and Lublin camps. Find warehouse w/ 800,000 shoes
October 111944The film noir picture Laura premieres. (Otto Preminger, director)
October 161944The film noir picture Ministry of Fear premieres (Fritz Lang, director; Miklos Rozsa, composer (uncredited); Hans Dreier, art direction)
October 211944Massive German surrender at Aachen
October 301944Last use of gas chambers at Auschwitz
November 241944French capture Strasbourg
December 16-271944Battle of the Bulge in the Ardennes
Christmas1944Marlene Dietrich entertains troops of the 99th Army near Bastogne at center of Battle of the Bulge
1944Rudolph Mate is nominated for Best Cinematography for Cover Girl; Dmitri
Tiomkin is nominated for Best Music for The Bridge of San Luis Rey and for Best Music for Woman of the Town; Hans Eisler is nominatd for Best Music for None But the Lonely Heart; Miklos Rozsa is nominated for Best Music for Double Indemnity; Hans J. Salter is nominated for Best Music for Christmas Holiday and for Best Scoring for The Merry Monahans; Werner Richard Heymann is nominated for Best Scoring for Knickerbocker Holiday; Billy Wilder is nominated for Best Writing for Double Indemnity; Double Indemnity is nominated for Best Picture; Walter Reisch is nominated for Best Writing for Gaslight
Winter1944-1945Marlene Dietrich is on front lines and at border of Germany. In late winter she is sent back to Paris, to recover from a second bout of pneumonia, plus frostbite
January 171945Soviet troops capture Warsaw
January 251945The film noir picture The Woman in the Window premieres (Fritz Lang, director)
January 261945Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz
Jan – April1945Battle of Germany
February 4 – 111945Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin meet at Yalta
March 21945The anti-Nazi picture Hotel Berlin premieres. (Vicki Baum, writer; Franz Waxman, original music; Peter Lorre, actor) The cast includes nine émigré actors
April 51945Americans discover camps at Ohrdruf
April 111945American troops liberate Buchenwald concentration camp
April 121945Death of Frankin D. Roosevelt; Harry S. Truman becomes President
April 151945British troops liberate Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
April 161945Soviet troops begin their final attack on Berlin; Americans enter Nuremberg
April 211945The Russians reach Berlin
April 221945The Russians liberate Saschenhausen
April 291945The American army liberates Dachau
April 301945Adolf Hitler commits suicide
April 301945The Russians arrive in center of Berlin after a battle for Berlin of several weeks
May1945Billy Wilder travels to London to screen documentary footage of death camps
May 11945Death of Hitler is announced
May 71945German troops surrender to the Allies
May 81945Victory-in-Europe Day
May 81945Marlene Dietrich, with American troops in Bavaria, requests permission to fraternize with the French troops and kisses Jean Gabin on VE Day
June 51945Allies control Berlin and divide Germany
June 281945Marlene Dietrich writes to Lucius Clay (Deupty Military Governor) asking for permission to go to Berlin
July 81945Lucius D. Clay writes to Marlene denying her request to go to Berlin, but informs her she can go at the end of the month. He asks for her mother’s address so he can ascertain her condition
July 131945Marlene Dietrich is returned to USA with a jaw infection. She is, her agent tells her, broke, and cannot afford her hotel
July 161945First U.S. atomic bomb test; Potsdam Conference begins
July/August1945Billy Wilder begins work on a documentary Death Mills about the concentration camps in Germany. Wilder lost three-quarters of his family in Auschwitz. Every émigré lost friends, or family or both
August 61945First atomic bomb dropped, on Hiroshima, Japan
August 91945Second atomic bomb dropped, on Nagasaki, Japan
August 141945The Japanese agree to an unconditional surrender
September 21945The Japanese sign the surrender agreement; V-J (Victory over Japan) Day
September 19-231945Marlene Dietrich is given permission to visit Berlin as a member of the Special Service
October 311945Alfred Hitchcock’s picture Spellbound premieres (Mikos Rozsa, composer) Rozsa receives the Academy Award for Best Music
November 161945The Lost Weekend premieres (Billy Wilder, director; Miklos Rozsa, composer)
November 201945The Nuremberg war crimes trials begin
November 301945The film noir picture Detour premieres (Edgar G. Ulmer, director)
December 251945Humoresque premieres (Rudi Fehr, editor; Franz Waxman, additional music)
1945Joe May quits the film business. He and his wife open a Viennese restaurant. His colleagues support the restaurant, but it fails
1945Billy Wilder receives the Academy Award for Best Directing and for Best Writing for The Lost Weekend; The Lost Weekend receives an Academy Award for Best Picture. Hans Dreier receives the Academy Award for Art Direction for Frenchman’s Creek. Miklos Rozsa is nominated for Best Music for The Lost Weekend and for Best Music for A Song To Remember and for Best Music for Spellbound; Hans J. Salter is nominated for Best Music for This Love of Ours. Hans Dreier is nominated for Art Direction for Love Letters
August 281946The film noir picture The Killers premieres (Robert Siodmak, director; Miklos Rozsa, composer)
December 131946Actor S.Z. Sakall and his wife Bozsi become American citizens. They keep their framed certificates on the mantelpiece
December 251946The horror (and anti-Nazi) film The Beast With Five Fingers premieres (Curt Siodmak, writer)
1946Hollywood has the most profitable year of the entire decade. Audiences flock to Humoresque, It’s A Wonderful Life, Notorious, The Killers, and The Best Years of Our Lives
1946Erich Pommer returns to Germany as an officer in the U.S. army, charged with supervising the licensing of the first production companies in the post-Nazi film industry
1946Robert Siodmak is nominated for Best Directing for The Killers; Franz Waxman is nominated for Best Music for Humoresque; Miklos Rozsa is nominated for Best Music for The Killers
1947Beginning a search to find Communists in the Screenwriters Guild, the House Un-American Activities Committee holds hearings in Washington. Actor Paul Henried joins Humphrey Bogart and others to demonstrate their support for the writers known as the “Hollywood Ten.”
1947The Best Years of Our Lives sweeps the Oscars
November 241947Hollywood studio executives, having met for two days in secret, announce they will blacklist the “Hollywood Ten” and will not knowingly hire a Communist or anyone with Communist sympathies
November 301947Director Ernst Lubitsch dies of a heart attack at age 55
1947Henry Koster is nominated for Best Directing for The Bishop’s Wife; Miklos Rozsa is nominated for Best Music for A Double Life
March 281948The Search premieres (Fred Zinnemann, director)
May 41948The Supreme Court decision in United States v. Paramount Pictures finds the sutdios in volation of anti-trust legislation by block-booking their pictures. The decision results in the separation of studios from the theaters, and will have an impact on the number of pictures that are made
June 301948A Foreign Affair premieres (Billy Wilder, director; Billy Wilder, co-writer; Frederick Hollander, composer; Marlene Dietrich, actor) Shot on location in Berlin two years after the war, it is Billy Wilder’s most personal film
July 161948John Huston’s film noir picture Key Largo premieres (Karl Freund, cinematographer; Max Steiner, composer; Rudi Fehr, editor)
December 211948The film noir picture Act of Violence premieres (Fred Zinemann, director, Bronislau Kaper, composer)
1948Fred Zinnemann is nominated for Best Directing for The Search; Frederick Hollander is nominated for Best Song for That Woman in Ermine; Billy Wilder is nominated for Best Writing for A Foreign Affair; Oscar Homolka is nominated for Best Actor in a Supporting Role for I Remember Mama
January 121949The film noir picture Criss Cross premieres (Robert Siodmak, director; Miklos Rozsa, composer; Franz Planer, cinematographer)
1949Franz Planer is nominated for Best Cinematography for Champion; Miklos Rozsa is nominated for Best Music for Champion
19501950 is the first year that German is “open” to civilians
April 301950The film noir picture D.O.A. premieres (Rudy Mate, director; Dmitri Tiomkin, composer)
August 41950The film noir picture Sunset Boulevard premieres (Billy Wilder, director; Bily Wilder, co-writer; Franz Waxman, composer; Hans Dreier, art direction) The pictures wins Oscars for Best Art Direction, Best Music and Best Writing
October 131950Harvey premieres (Henry Koster, director)
1950Billy Wilder receives the Academy Award for Best Writing for Sunset Boulevard; Franz Waxman receives the Academy Award for Best Music for Sunset Boulevard. Billy Wilder is nominated for Best Directing for Sunset Boulevard; Hans Dreier is nominated for Best Art Direction for Sunset Boulevard
August 141951George Stevens’ A Place in the Sun premieres. (Franz Waxman, composer; Hans Dreier, art direction) The picture wins the Oscar for Best Musical Score
September 71951The film noir picture Der Verlorene (The Lost One) premieres in Germany. (Peter Lorre, director) The picture fails at the box office; Lorre returns to the United States, having hoped for a directorial career back in Berlin
1951Composer Werner Richard Heymann returns to Germany
1951Actor Ilke Gruening returns to Germany. She will come back to the United States; her professional life in Germany is unsatisfactory
1951Director Robert Siodmak leaves Hollywood for Paris. His career has been slowed by the disintegrating studio system, which in turn has been affected by the arrival of television
1951Franz Waxman receives the Academy Award for Best Music for A Place in the Sun. Franz Planer is nominated for Best Cinematography for Death of A Salesman; Fred Zinneman is nominated for Best Documentary for Benjy; Miklos Rozsa is nominated for Best Music for Quo Vadis; Billy Wilder is nominated for Best Writing for The Big Carnival
1951-1954Between 1951 and 1953, the House Un-American Activities Committee again focuses on Hollywood. The Hollywood studios create blacklists of individuals who they will not hire, for alleged Communist associations. Still more are “grey-listed” as being suspect. Paul Henreid is among this number, as is Fritz Lang. Fritz Lang’s lawyer writes an apology for Lang’s involvement in the Anti-Nazi League, which was allegedly a Communist front.
1947-1954Hollywood makes almost 40 explicitly anti-Communist pictures. None of them make any money.
1951 –Television series I Love Lucy (Karl Freund, cinematographer) Karl Freund developed the three camera technique used to shoot television situation comedies
1952-1956Television series, Our Miss Brooks (Karl Freund, cinematographer)
July 301952The western High Noon premieres. (Fred Zinnemann, director; Dmitri Tiomkin, composer)
1952Miklos Rozsa receives an Academy Award for Best Music for High Noon. Fred Zinneman is nominated for Best Directing for High Noon; High Noon is nominated for Best Picture. Miklos Rozsa is nominated for Best Music for Ivanhoe
March 101953Charles Walter’s Lili premieres (Bronislau Kaper, composer) The picture wins the Academy Award for Best Musical Score
August 51953From Here to Eternity premieres. (Fred Zinnemann, director) The picture wins the Academy Award for Best Director
October 141953The film noir picture The Big Heat premieres (Fritz Lang, director)
1953Walter Reisch receives an Academy Award for Best Writing for Titanic. Fred Zinneman receives an Academy Award for Best Directing for From Here to Eternity; From Here to Eternity is nominated for Best Picture. Billy Wilder is nominated for Best Directing for Stalag 17; Bronislau Kaper is nominated for Best Music for Lili; Miklos Rozsa is nominated for Best Music for Julius Caesar; Frederick Hollander is nominated for Best Music for The 5,000 Fingers of Dr. T
September 221953Sabrina premieres (Billy Wilder, director; Billy Wilder, co-writer; Frederick Hollander, composer; Marcel Dalio, actor)
April 291954Joe May dies at age 73
May 171954Supreme Court announces their unanimous decision in Brown v. Board of Education
August 41954Magnificent Obsession premieres (Douglas Sirk, director) Douglas Sirk takes the melodrama and uses it for social commentary. These critiques of American society and ideology were not seen as such at the time and are Universal Picture’s biggest box office hits of the decade
1954Billy Wilder is nominated for Best Directing for Sabrina; Dmitri Tiomkin is nominated for Best Music for The High and Mighty; Franz Waxman is nominated for Best Music for The Silver Chalice; Dmitri Tiomkin is nominated for Best Song for The High and Mighty; Billy Wilder is nominated for Best Writing for Sabrina; Max Ophuls is nominated for Best Art Direction for Le Plaisir
1955S.Z. Sakall dies at age 71
December1955All That Heaven Allows premieres (Douglas Sirk, director)
December1956Written on the Wind premieres (Douglas Sirk, director)
1956Dmitri Tiomkin is nominated for Best Music for Giant
1957Erich Wolfgang Korngold dies at age 60
1957Billy Wilder is nominated for Best Directing for Witness for The Prosecution; Witness for the Prosecution is nominated for Best Picture. Dmitri Tiomkin is nominated for Best Music for Wild Is The Wind
1958Dmitri Tiomkin is nominated for Best Music for The Old Man and the Sea
March 291959Some Like It Hot premieres (Billy Wilder, director; Billy Wilder, co-writer)
April 301959Imitation of Life premieres (Douglas Sirk, director)
1959Miklos Rozsa receives an Academy Award for Best Music for Ben Hur. Franz Planer is nominated for Best Cinematography for The Nun’s Story; Fred Zinnemann is nominated for Best Director for The Nun’s Story; Franz Waxman is nominated for Best Music for The Nun’s Story; Billy Wilder is nominated for Best Directing for Some Like It Hot; Ernest Gold is nominated for Best Music for On The Beach; Dmitri Tiomkin is nominated for Best Song for Strange Are the Ways of Love
June 151960The Apartment premieres (Billy Wilder, dorector; Billy Wilder, co-writer)
December 151960Otto Preminger’s Exodus premieres (Ernest Gold, composer) The picture won Best Musical Score at the Academy Awards
1960Billy Wilder receives Best Director Academy Award for The Apartment; The Apartment receives Best Picture Academy Award. Billy Wilder is nominated for Best Writer for The Apartment. Jules Dassin is nominated for Best Director for Never on Sunday; Fred Zinnemann is nominated for Best Director for The Sundowners; The Sundowners is nominated for Best Picture. Dmitri Tiomkin is nominated for Best Music and for Best Song for The Alamo; Ernest Gold is nominated for Best Music for Exodus; Alexander Trauner is nominated for Best Art Direction for The Apartment
1961Werner Richard Heymann dies at age 75
December 191961Stanley Kramer’s Judgment at Nuremberg premieres (Ernest Gold, composer)
1961Franz Planer nominated for Best Cinematography for The Children’s Hour; Eugen Schuftan nominated for Best Cinematography for The Hustler; Dmitri Tiomkin nominated for Best Music and for Best Song for El Cid; Dmitri Tiomkin nominated for Best Music and for Best Song for The Guns of Navarone
1962Bronislau Kaper nominated for Best Music for Mutiny on the Bounty; Franz Waxman nominated for Best Music for Taras Bulba
1963Ernest Gold is nominated for Best Music and for Best Song for It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World; Dmitri Tiomkin is nominated for Best Music and for Best Song for 55 Days at Peking
1964Peter Lorre dies at age 60
1964Dmitri Tiomkin is nominated for Best Music for The Fall of the Roman Empire
1966Fred Zinnemann receives Best Director Academy Award for A Man for All Seasons; A Man for All Seasons receives Best Picture Academy Award
1966Erich Pommer dies at age 77
1967Franz Waxman dies at age 61
1969Ernest Gold is nominated for Best Music for The Secret of Santa Vittoria
1969Karl Freund dies at age 79
1970Dmitri Tiomkin is nominated for Best Music, for Best Song and for Best Scoring for Tchaikovsky
1970Frederick Hollander dies at age 70
1972Peter Zinner nominated as Best Editor for The Godfather
1973Robert Siodmak dies at age 73
1975Alexander Trauner nominated for Best Art Direction for The Man Who Would Be King
1976Fritz Lang dies at age 76
1977Fred Zinneman nominated as Best Director for Julia; Julia nominated for Best Picture
1978Peter Zinner nominated as Best Editor for The Deer Hunter
1983Peter Zinner nominated as Best Editor for An Officer and A Gentleman
1985Rudi Fehr nominated as Best Editor for Prizzi’s Honor
1987Billy Wilder receives the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award from the Academy
1988Paul Kohner dies at age 88
1988Henry Koster dies at age 83
1992Marlene Dietrich dies at age 91
1992Paul Henreid dies at age 87
1994Hans J. Salter dies at age 98
1995Miklos Rozsa dies at age 88
1997Fred Zinnemann dies at age 89
1999Rudi Fehr dies at age 88
2000Curt Siodmak dies at age 98
2002Billy Wilder dies at age 96

SOURCES:
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Museum of Film and Television, Berlin
National Archives
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Stephen Bach
Otto Friedrich (Before The Deluge: A Portrait of Berlin in the 1920s, City of Nets: A Portrait of Hollywood in the 1940s)
Aljean Harmetz, The Making of Casablanca
Elisabeth Heymann
Henry Koster Archive
Klaus Kreimeier, The Ufa Story
Al Lareau
Christof Mauch
Maria Riva
Ed Sikov, On Sunset Boulevard: The Life and Times of Billy Wilder
Ina Sonenberg
John Waxman
Fred Zinneman, A Life in the Movies
www.historyplace.com
www.imdb.com
www.moderntimes.com
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk

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