1910
Alexis Carrel devised a method to allow organs to survive while they are out of the body as well as an idea for performing shunt procedures between chambers of the heart. His research and findings were critical to the advancement of open-heart surgery, organ transplant, and the Blalock-Taussig Shunt, a procedure is temporarily used to direct blood flow to the lungs when treating heart defects for blue-baby syndrome. His research would win him a Nobel Prize two years later.