Article: Whether Besides the Philosophical Sciences, any
Further Doctrine Is Required?
We proceed thus to the First Article:--
1. It seems that, besides the philosophical sciences,
we have no need of any further knowledge. For man should
not seek to know what is above reason: "Seek not the things
that are too high for thee" [Ecclesiasticus 3:22]. But whatever
is not above reason is sufficiently considered in the philosophical
sciences. Therefore any other knowledge besides the philosophical
sciences is superfluous.
2. Further, knowledge can be concerned only with being,
for nothing can be known, save the truth, which is convertible
with being. But everything that is, is considered in the
philosophical sciences -- even God Himself; so that there
is a part of philosophy called theology, or the divine science,
as is clear from Aristotle. Therefore, besides the philosophical
sciences, there is no need of any further knowledge.
On the contrary: It is written -- "All Scripture inspired
of God is profitable to teach, to reprove, to correct, to
instruct in justice" [2 Timothy 3:16]. Now Scripture, inspired
of God, is not a part of the philosophical sciences discovered
by human reason. Therefore it is useful that beside the
philosophical sciences there should be another science --
i.e., inspired by God.
I answer that: It was necessary for man's salvation that
there should be a knowledge revealed by God, besides the
philosophical sciences investigated by human reason. First,
because man is directed to God as to an end that surpasses
the grasp of his reason. . . .
For the truth about God, such as reason can know it, would
only be known by a few, and that after a long time, and
with the admixture of many errors; whereas man's whole salvation
which is in God, depends upon the knowledge of this truth.
Therefore, in order that the salvation of men might be brought
about more fitly and more surely, it was necessary that
they be taught divine truths by divine revelation. It was
therefore necessary that, besides the philosophical sciences
investigated by reason, there should be a sacred byway of