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Webisode 5: 1800-1861 Page: 1 | 2

Anti-Slavery Almanac
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Anti-Slavery Almanac
The abolitionist movement in America began as a militant crusade in the 1830s, spearheaded largely by religious leaders. This anti-slavery almanac from 1839 links emancipation with Christian salvation.



Slaves in a Cotton Field
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Slaves in a Cotton Field
Slavery led to huge profits on the cotton plantations. Here men, women, and children pick cotton while a white overseer watches from horseback.


Lincoln Elected!
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"Lincoln Elected!"
In this Republican newspaper Lincoln's election is celebrated as a victory of liberty and freedom. Lincoln swept every free northern state except New Jersey. The southern and border state vote, however, was split between John Breckinridge and John Bell, thus ensuring a Lincoln victory.


The Philadelphia Anti-Slavery Society
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The Philadelphia Anti-Slavery Society
The American Anti-Slavery Society, founded in 1833, included numerous local chapters. One of the largest and most effective was the Philadelphia Anti-Slavery Society, whose executive committe is shown here in this 1851 montage. Seated in front (from left) are Oliver Johnson, Margaret Jones Burleigh, Benjamin C. Bacon, Robert Purvis, Lucretia Mott, and James Mott. Standing (from left) are Mary Grew, E. W. Davis, Haworth Wetherald, Abby Kimber, J. Miller McKim, and Sarah Pugh.


Frederick Douglass
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Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass, seen here as he looked in the 1860s, was the foremost black abolitionist in America. In 1847, in Rochester, New York, he formed the abolitionist newspaper the North Star. Through editorial writing, lecturing, and a vivid autobiography published in 1845, Douglass became the most famous and influential African-American of the nineteenth century.


A Slave's Whip Marks
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A Slave's Whip Marks
When Frederick Douglass wrote that he was whipped until bloody, "cutting me so savagely as to leave the wounds visible for a long time after," he was not exaggerating. Here a slave named Gordon shows his scarred back. His wounds were inflicted during a Christmas Day whipping in 1862.


Henry Clay
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Henry Clay
Henry Clay, seen here as he looked around 1850, had been the author of the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Now thirty years later once again he stepped forward to try to help his country avoid rupture. His "solution" was the Compromise of 1850.


Fort Sumter
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Fort Sumter
This Currier and Ives print shows the bombarding of federal Fort Sumter off South Carolina's coast on April 12 and 13, 1861. On April 14 the Union defenders of the fort finally surrendered, and the Confederate flag was hoisted over Sumter. One day later President Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 state militiamen to serve in the Union army. The Civil War had begun.


A Map of Kansas and Nebraska
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A Map of Kansas and Nebraska
By the Kansas-Nebraska Act the unorganized western territory of the Great Plains was divided into two huge new territories called Kansas and Nebraska. You can see them here on this 1856 map. By repealing the Missouri Compromise, the Act opened up these new territories to warring factions of pro- and anti-slavery settlers. And it did something else harmful as well—it took lands from Indian peoples which had been guaranteed to them by treaty.


John Brown
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John Brown
This is how John Brown looked in 1856, the year of his bloody attacks in Kansas. In May of that year he and several of his sons descended upon three pro-slavery settlers and hacked them to pieces with broadswords.



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