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Webisode 7: 1865-1892 Page: 1 | 2

Burying the Dead
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Burying the Dead
620,000 soldiers died in the Civil War -- 360,000 Union and 260,000 Confederate. Here, in the kind of scene repeated over and over again during the war, three South Carolina soldiers who died at Gettysburg are prepared for burial.



Mark Twain
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Mark Twain
Mark Twain, whose real name was Samuel Clemens, was a steamboat operator when the Civil War broke out. He spent the war years in the West, as a newspaperman in Nevada and California, gradually changing from a pro-Confederate to a pro-Unionist.


Ruins in Hampton, Virginia
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Ruins in Hampton, Virginia
Tens of thousands of southern buildings were destroyed during the Civil War, their surviving chimneys the only signs of what they once had been. These ruins are in Hampton, Virginia.


Abraham Lincoln, 1865
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Abraham Lincoln, 1865
Abraham Lincoln spent the final year of his life working hard to secure support for a Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery forever from America. How he would have presided over the post-war era of Reconstruction is unknown, due to his murder on April 14, 1865. The portrait here was taken by the photographer Alexander Gardner just a few months before the assassination, about the time General Sherman visited Lincoln in Washington. The glass negative was cracked and then discarded by Gardner after he had made just a single print from it.


Sharecroppers
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Sharecroppers
There were early attempts to provide former slaves with land of their own confiscated from former slave-owners. General Sherman's Special Field Order Number 15, issued in January 1865, had promised forty acres of land to each family who agreed to move to areas like the Sea Islands off Georgia. By June, 1865, 40,000 freed slaves had settled in coastal Georgia and South Carolina where they began a brief experiment in self-sufficiency.


President Andrew Johnson
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President Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson was a Southern Democrat. He had been chosen by Lincoln as vice president in 1864 because he alone of all Southern senators from seceding states had remained loyal to the Union. But Johnson proceeded to alienate almost everyone in Congress when he decided to bring about the "restoration" of the Union with only the mildest of requirements for the defeated Confederate states.


A Freedman's School
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A Freedman's School
In the spring of 1866 Congress enlarged the scope of the Freedmen's Bureau, empowering it among other things to build schools and to hire teachers. Here is the Misses Cooke's school room in Richmond, VirginiaŅa project supported by the Freedmen's Bureau.


Ku Klux Klan Members
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Ku Klux Klan Members
Pictured, from a story in HARPER'S WEEKLY, are two members of the newly formed Ku Klux Klan. The two men, shown here in their disguises, were captured in an 1868 riot at Huntsville, Alabama. The sketch was made from a photograph.


Awkward Collision
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"Awkward Collision"
The 1866 illustration here by Thomas Nast shows Andrew Johnson (left) face to face with Thaddeus Stevens. Behind them the presidential train and the train of Congress are on the verge of collision. At issue was the future of the eleven former Confederate States. Johnson wanted them readmitted to the Union as quickly as possible (thus his sign: "36, not 25 states"). Congress wanted to make sure that black rights were safeguarded in the South before readmitting these states to representation in the House and Senate.


Oliver Wendell Holmes
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Oliver Wendell Holmes
Oliver Wendell Holmes, shown here, was a Harvard law professor, a Massachusetts judge, and a Supreme Court Justice. He exercised a deep influence on the law through his support of the idea of judicial restraint, which urged judges to avoid letting their personal opinions affect their decisions.



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