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Webisode 7: 1865-1892 Page: 1 | 2

Timothy Howe
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Timothy Howe
Senator Timothy Howe, shown here, had been a strong supporter of Abraham Lincoln. But he broke ranks with President Andrew Johnson over the issue of Reconstruction in the South. He would go on in 1868 to vote for Johnson's impeachment and removal from office.



Blacks Elected in Mississippi
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Blacks Elected in Mississippi
In March, 1867 Congress passed the Reconstruction Act, opening the era of Congressional Reconstruction. The Act divided the South into five military districts and disenfranchised large numbers of white southerners. The result was black voting majorities in five southern states. This soon led to the election of numerous blacks to high political office, as shown in this photo montage from Mississippi. Amongst the distinguished lawyers and politicians depicted here are Blanche K. Bruce and Hiram Revels (at left and right of the Old Capitol building). Both men were elected to the U.S. Senate, while their colleague John R. Lynch (located below Bruce in the picture) served in the U.S. House of Representatives one of twenty African-Americans to be elected there during the Reconstruction era.



Hiram Revels
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Hiram Revels
Hiram Revels, shown here, was elected to the U.S. Senate in January, 1870 to fill the seat vacated by Mississippi's Jefferson Davis. He thereby became the first black man in the Senate.


Thaddeus Stevens
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Thaddeus Stevens
Thaddeus Stevens, shown here as photographed by Mathew Brady around 1860, was a fiery politician from Pennsylvania who served as House leader in Congress in 1866 and 1867, and as chief of the Radical Republicans there. In 1868 he helped impeach the President.


Impeachment Ticket
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Impeachment Ticket
Andrew Johnson's impeachment trial in the Senate was open to the public, though only a limited number of daily tickets were available. Here is one of the coveted tickets, dated March 24, 1868.


Senate Voting on Impeachment
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Senate Voting on Impeachment
Here is the lower half of the Senate tally sheet used to record votes in the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson. On the left are the "Guilty" votes; on the right the "Not Guilty." Since two-thirds of the Senate are required to secure a conviction in an impeachment trial, a total of thirty-six votes was needed. The tally on May 16 was one shy of a conviction. Senator Edmund Ross of Kansas is often attributed with supplying that one vote, but six other Republicans also voted for acquittal.


Students at Howard University
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Students at Howard University
Here black students stand outside and on the balcony of the main hall of Howard University. Howard was one of nine black colleges founded immediately following the Civil War. Amongst the others were Hampton Institute, St. Augustine's College, Atlanta University, Fisk University, Storer College, and Biddle Memorial Institute. Education was a top priority for blacks in the early years of Reconstruction.



Ulysses S. Grant
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Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant is shown here as he looked when president. A superb general, Grant was not cut out for politics, and his presidency was in many ways a failure. He once said, "I did not want the Presidency, and I have never quite forgiven myself for resigning the command of the army to accept it."


Rutherford B. Hayes
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Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes, shown here, truly believed he was doing the correct thing by ending the era of Reconstruction in the South. "My judgment was that the time had come to put an end to bayonet rule," he wrote, "to wipe out the color line, to abolish sectionalism and bring peace." But the pledges he received from Southern Democrats to protect the rights of black citizens proved worthless. And the civil rights revolution that Hayes had inherited would be stalled until the twentieth century.


Frederick Douglass
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Frederick Douglass
Here is Frederick Douglass as he looked around 1875. Douglass would go on in the 1880s and '90s to serve as a U.S. Marshal, a Washington, D.C. recorder of deeds, and finally the U.S. minister to Haiti. The most influential African-American of the nineteenth century, for fifty years Douglass spoke to the conscience of the nation.



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