The Slave Trade
Slavery first came to America with some of the earliest settlers . But they weren't the first people to own human beings. Slavery was an evil found around the world. There were jobs no one wanted to do, and, in the days before machinery, slaves seemed an answer. If you were on the losing side of a war, or were kidnapped by a rival tribe or a thief, you might end up a slave. Some Native Americans owned slaves. It was an ancient practice in Africa. But slavery in Africa was a domestic institution. In America it would go way beyond that, developing into a system of enforced labor on vast plantations. And while in Africa blacks were owned by other blacks, in America blacks were always owned by whites. In America it would always be racial slavery.
By the eighteenth century there had developed a special pattern to the American slave trade. New England Yankees often started it by taking their salted cod to the Caribbean island of Barbados-just north of Venezuela. There they traded the fish for cane sugar. Then they headed back north to Virginia where they loaded tobacco before sailing east across the Atlantic to England. In England the cargo was exchanged for guns and cloth and trinketsall of which could be used to buy human beings in Africa. Then the slave ships sailed south from England to Africa to fill their holds with African men, women, and childrenwho were the most valuable cargo of all . Those people sailed westagainst their wishesand were usually taken to a Caribbean island or a southern port where the sea captains sold them for cash or more sugar. Finally, the crisscrossed triangular journey ended in Massachusetts or New York or Annapolis. Robert Walsh was an eyewitness of a slave ship in action. He wrote : "The slaves were all enclosed under grated hatchways, between decks. The space was so low they sat between each other's legs ... [and] there was no possibility of lying down, or at all changing their position, by night or day. Over the hatchway stood a ferocious-looking fellow with a scourge of many twisted thongs in his hand, who was the slavedriver of the ship.... The last parting sounds we heard from the unhallowed ship were the cries and shrieks of the slaves, suffering under some bodily affliction ."