The teacher will need to do the following before beginning this lesson:
View the video THE RISE AND FALL OF JIM CROW. Most of the people and events in this lesson plan are covered in Episodes One and Two of the video.
Review the online materials from the Web links bookmarked below.
- THE RISE AND FALL OF JIM CROW, Episodes One and Two.
- Modem: 56.6 Kbps or faster.
- Browser: Netscape Navigator 4.0 or above or Internet Explorer 4.0 or above. Macintosh computer: System 8.1 or above and at least 32 MB of RAM.
- Personal computer (Pentium II 350 MHz or Celeron 600 MHz) running Windows® 95 or higher and at least 32 MB of RAM.
"Pap" Singleton and the Exodus to Kansas
Testimony of Henry Adams regarding the Negro Exodus
Louisiana Negro Convention, 1879
Testimony of John H. Burch regarding the Negro Exodus
Testimony of John H. Johnson regarding the Negro Exodus
Affidavit of Daniel Parker regarding the Negro Exodus
Proceedings of the National Conference of Colored Men of the United States (Selections)
Frederick Douglass and Richard T. Greener on the Negro Exodus, 1879
This collection of documents from the Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition at Yale University focuses on the exodus of blacks from the southern states in the period following reconstruction.
Testimony of Benjamin Singleton, Washington, D. C., April 17, 1880, before the Senate Select Committee Investigating the "Negro Exodus from the Southern States"
Benjamin Singleton's testimony before the U.S. Senate Select Committee gives some insight into the recruitment of colonists for the Kansas exodus.
Thompson, Isabel and Louise T. Clarke, "Ghost Town -- Almost: The Depression Hits a Negro Town," OPPORTUNITY, JOURNAL OF NEGRO LIFE v. 13, n. 9 (September, 1935), p 277
This article from the National Urban League's magazine OPPORTUNITY, JOURNAL OF NEGRO LIFE describes the history and the present state (in 1935) of Nicodemus, Kansas, an African American town founded in 1877. An editorial note calls the article "a vivid picture of the fate of one group who sought economic isolation."
Nicodemus, Kansas: African-American Mosaic Exhibition (Library of Congress)
Western Migration and Homesteading: African-American Mosaic Exhibition (Library of Congress)
These Library of Congress Web pages includes maps and photographs of some of the houses and inhabitants of Nicodemus, Kansas and photographs and other images of the African American Exodus to Kansas.
Isaiah Montgomery and the Founding of Mound Bayou
Booker T. Washington, "A Town Owned by Negroes: Mound Bayou, Miss., An Example of Thrift and Self-Government," THE BOOKER T. WASHINGTON PAPERS, v. 9, p. 307, July 1907
Booker T. Washington corresponded often with Isaiah Montgomery and visited Mound Bayou on a number of occasions. Washington's favorable article presents a good picture of the organization of the community of Mound Bayou. Students should note the navigational bar on the right side of the page that will allow them to page through this article.
Mound Bayou, "Jewel of the Delta," by Caneidra Chambers
Created by students of Dr. Amy Young, Professor of Archaeology at the University of Southern Mississippi, this Web page gives a brief history of Mound Bayou and includes historical photographs. It also documents a recent archaeological dig at Mound Bayou.