The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow

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The History of Jim Crow
This site for educators explores the segregation of African Americans from the 1870s through the 1950s.

African American World
Peruse this detailed, comprehensive Web site on African Americans to learn more about their historic struggles from the civil rights movement to the Jim Crow era.

Behind The Veil: Documenting African American Life in the Jim Crow Era
Housed at the Center for Documentary Studies at Duke University, this research effort attempts to correct historical inaccuracies of African American experiences during the period of legal segregation through the voices of those who lived it.

Virtual Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia
Visit the museum that houses a 4,000-piece collection of racist artifacts that Dr. David Pilgrim, professor of Sociology at Ferris State University, created to educate people about race relations in the United States.

African American Holocaust
See a compilation of lynching photographs by Milford F. Plaines.

Encyclopedia Britannica's Guide to Black History
The Encyclopedia Britannica's Guide to Black History examines five centuries of black heritage from the slave revolts of early America through the successes of the Civil Rights Movement.

National Parks Service: Park Net
Explore a sampling of Jim Crow laws in various states.

Find out what Jim Crow was and how it was applied to the lives of African-American citizens on this Web page.

Freedmen's Bureau Online
Visit this comprehensive site to see recorded abuses and violent crimes perpetrated against the Freedmen.

Jump Jim Crow, Or What Difference Did Emancipation Make
This Web site features a gamut of information relating to the era of Jim Crow, from the Freedmen's Bureau to stories of daily life.

Jim Crow
Ohio State University's Web site explores the subjects of sharecropping, lynching, race, and voting restrictions.


Jessie Daniel Ames
"Southern Women and Lynching"
Ames explains the aims of the Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching in this essay.

Sidney Bechet
Listen to the music of Sidney Bechet through PBS's JAZZ Website.

Charlotte Hawkins Brown
Charlotte Hawkins Brown Museum
Find out more about Charlotte Hawkins Brown and the school she founded, the Palmer Memorial Institute.

W.E.B. Du Bois
Frontline: The Two Nations of Black America
Delve deeper on the debate between W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington.

Marcus Garvey
American Experience: Marcus Garvey
Hear Marcus Garvey speak about his organization, the Universal Negro Improvement Association, and his arrest in 1925. Read personal accounts from people who were members of Garvey's organization.

A. Philip Randolph
A. Phillip Randolph: For Jobs and Freedom
A timeline and biography provides information on the labor leader.

Benjamin "Pap" Singleton
New Perspectives on the West
Singleton and "Exodusters" are discussed in this PBS Website.

Booker T. Washington
American Visionaries: Booker T. Washington
This online exhibit by the National Park Service chronicles Washington's life from slavery to his efforts in building Tuskegee University. Don't miss the photo gallery, which includes pictures of Washington, his friends, and family as well as pictures of his personal belongings.

Madam C.J. Walker
Moneywise with Kelvin Boston
Walker's contributions to African-American entrepreneurship are explored in this essay.

Ida B. Wells
The Black Press: Soldiers Without Swords
Learn more about Ida B. Wells and other men and women who shaped the history of the black press.

Richard Wright
Richard Wright: Black Boy
Learn more about Richard Wright through a photo gallery, timeline, and biography.


National Archives and Records Association
This Web site enables people to inspect the government records, ensuring access to essential evidence that documents the rights of American citizens and the actions of federal officials.

The Supreme Court of the United States
Find out about the institution of the Supreme Court of the United States, its traditions, and procedures on this Web site.

The Supreme Court Historical Society
Browse this site to learn more about the preservation of the history of the Supreme Court.

PBS / The Scottsboro Boys Case
Read more on the history Scottsboro Boys case and the film that chronicled the struggles of nine innocent African-American young men.

University Of Missouri-Kansas City School Of Law FTrials/scottsboro/scottsb.htm
From the University Of Missouri-Kansas City School Of Law, read detailed information on the trials of nine innocent young men accused of raping two white women in a case that made a mockery of the criminal justice system.

Web site that explores the institution of slavery.

The New York Public Library / Schomburg Center For Research In Black Culture
Explore one of the world's most extensive collections of African American culture.

Harlem, 1900-1940
Learn more about Black writers, intellectuals, and organizations from 1900 through 1940.

Colorado College: The Harlem Renaissance
Get more information on authors and artists during the Harlem Renaissance on this Web site.

Federation of State Humanities Councils
A national state-by-state repository of Humanities Councils.

University Of Illinois Press: The Booker T. Washington Papers
This Web site accesses thousands of pages, comprising the printed papers of Booker T. Washington and providing users with a full spectrum of his work.


American Nightmare: The History of Jim Crow
Jerrold M. Packard
St Martin's Press, 2002
An overview of the Jim Crow era -- from Reconstruction to the passage of the Voting Rights Act in 1965.

Black Workers Remember: An Oral History of Segregation, Unionism, and the Freedom Struggle
Michael Keith Keith Honey
University of California Press, 2001
Oral histories from laborers about labor organizing and Jim Crow in the workplace.

Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920
Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore
University of North Carolina Press, 1996
This book examines the role of middle-class educated black women activists -- such as Sarah Pettey Dudley and Charlotte Hawkins Brown -- who became ambassadors to the white community.

Jim Crow Guide: The Way It Was
Stetson Kennedy
Florida Atlantic University, 1990
This mock guidebook, originally published in 1956, covers all areas of activity where Jim Crow rules applied -- from where one could live to whom one could marry. A free online version of the book is available on

From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans
John Hope Franklin, Alfred A. Moss
McGraw Hill College Div., 1994
For over 50 years, the authoritative history of African Americans.

Remembering Jim Crow: African Americans Tell About Life in the Segregated South
William Henry Chafe (Editor), et al
New Press, 2001
First-hand accounts by people in 25 communities and 10 states about the terrors they faced during the Jim Crow era. The interviews are drawn from Duke University's collection "Behind the Veil: Documenting African American Life in the Jim Crow South."

The Strange Career of Jim Crow
C. Vann Woodward
Oxford University Press, 2001
Originally published in 1955 and updated since, this book provides evidence that whites and blacks had not been so severely divided in the South until Jim Crow laws emerged in the 1890s.

Taps for a Jim Crow Army: Letters from Black Soldiers in World War II
Phillip McGuire (Editor)
University Press of Kentucky, 1993
African-American soldiers express their rage and disillusionment they experienced while serving in a segregated army in letters to government officials.

Teaching Equality: Black Schools in the Age of Jim Crow
Adam Fairclough
University of Georgia Press, 2001
Fairclough examines the contributions African-American teachers made to the civil-rights movement.


Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
Striving for Justice
Chicago Historical Society's photo essay on the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters focuses on the organization's beginnings.

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Since 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People has fought for enactment of civil rights laws and led public information and protest campaigns to improve opportunities for African Americans.

National Association of Colored Women (NACW) nacwc/nacwc1.htm
This guide to microfilm archive collection (records 1895-1992) provides background information on an important organization of African-American women activists.

National Negro Business League
The American Experience: America 1900 reference/primary/bookert.html
Read Booker T. Washington's address at the first Meeting of the National Negro Business League in 1900.

National Urban League
Founded in 1910, the National Urban League is the oldest and largest community-based movement devoted to empowering African Americans.

Local Info

The African American Experience Fund
Learn more about African-American history through the National Parks. Visit historic sites from the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site in Alabama to the Mary McLeod Bethune Council House in Washington, D.C.

African-American Museums and Historic Sites
A map links to African-American museums and historical sites throughout the U.S.

Federation of State Humanities Councils
This map links to the State Humanities Councils of all 50 states, some of which have created local sites dealing with Jim Crow and other forms of inequality.

Parallel and Crossover Lives
This Web site makes use of oral history projects on segregation and desegregation in Texas.

Race and Place: An African American Community in the Jim Crow South
Read about the effects of Jim Crow laws in a small African-American community in Charlottesville, Virginia.

Remembering Jim Crow: Jim Crow Laws
A sampling of Jim Crow laws from Alabama to Wyoming.

Florida Humanities Council: Parallel Lives
Two writers remember growing up in Florida during the last days of Jim Crow.

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