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American Spring LIVE: Episode 3 - Connections

Nature’s perfect partnerships, precisely synchronized, have evolved over thousands of years. Learn how plants and animals depend on each other to survive. See first-hand how climate change can break those connections, altering the timing of weather and plant growth, and disrupting the delicate relationships between plants and pollinators such as moths, bees and butterflies. Watch a family of wolf cubs explore their den in Minnesota’s Voyageurs National Park and learn about their vital connection with the park’s ecosystem. Plus, see how bobcats in California hunt for mice and other small prey.

Major support for Nature: American Spring LIVE was provided by the National Science Foundation and Anne Ray Foundation.

NSF and Anne Ray Logos

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Chang: TONIGHT ON 'AMERICAN SPRING LIVE,' WE'RE EXPLORING THE SCIENCE BEHIND SPRING'S OFTEN SURPRISING CONNECTIONS BETWEEN PLANTS AND POLLINATORS, PREDATOR AND PREY.

ONCE AGAIN WE'RE TAKING YOU ALL ACROSS AMERICA-- TO MINNESOTA, WHERE A WOLF MOTHER AND HER CUBS ARE FACING A CRISIS BROUGHT ON BY THE SPRING THAW.

WE'LL GO LIVE INSIDE A HIVE TO FIGURE OUT WHAT'S HAPPENING TO OUR BEES, AND WE'LL SEE HOW AN ABUNDANT FEAST HAS INSPIRED ONE OF NATURE'S STEALTHIEST PREDATORS TO CHANGE ITS WAYS.

OUR OWN PHIL TORRES IS GETTING A FIRSTHAND LOOK AT THE FORCE OF SPRING'S SNOWMELT.

PLUS, WE'LL SHOW YOU HOW YOU CAN JOIN AMERICANS EVERYWHERE WHO SH ARE STEPPING UP TO HELP THE PLANET IN ITS HOUR OF NEED BY BECOMING CITIZEN SCIENTISTS.

BEES ARE AWESOME.

THEY POLLINATE OUR CROPS.

Chang: DISCOVER HOW SPRINGTIME CONNECTS ALL OF US TO ONE ANOTHER IN UNEXPECTED WAYS.

THIS IS 'AMERICAN SPRING LIVE.'

THANK YOU.

Chang: WELCOME TO 'AMERICAN SPRING LIVE.'

I'M JUJU CHANG COMING TO YOU LIVE HERE IN CALIFORNIA, WHERE BEHIND ME, YOU CAN STILL SEE THE SNOWCAPPED PEAKS OF THE SIERRA NEVADA MOUNTAINS HERE IN SEQUOIA NATIONAL PARK.

IN THE UPPER ELEVATIONS, THERE MAY BE SNOW, BUT DOWN HERE, SPRING IS UNDERWAY, AND TONIGHT, WE'LL BE LOOKING INTO THE UNEXPECTED WAYS SPRING CONNECTS US ALL AND WHY.

AS ALWAYS, JOINING ME TO UNTANGLE THIS SCIENTIFIC WEB IS WORLD-RENOWNED BIOLOGIST AND MY NEW FRIEND, DR. THOR HANSON.

HEY, THOR.

HEY, JUJU.

IT'S ANOTHER GREAT EVENING, AND TONIGHT, WE'LL EXPLORE SOMETHING THAT SCIENTISTS THINK A LOT ABOUT-- HOW SPECIES INTERACT WITH ONE ANOTHER, HOW THOSE CONNECTIONS HOLD NATURE TOGETHER, AND HOW MANY OF THOSE RELATIONSHIPS ARE CHANGING AS THE CLIMATE WARMS.

Chang: AND AS SPRING ARRIVES EARLIER AND EARLIER IN RECENT AS YEARS, IT HAS HAD AN IMPACT ON ALL SORTS OF WILDLIFE, INCLUDING PREDATORS.

FOR MORE ON THAT, LET'S GO TO THE FORESTS OF MINNESOTA TO VOYAGEURS NATIONAL PARK.

THAT'S WHERE A TEAM OF RESEARCHERS, LED BY SCIENTIST TOM GABLE, HAS BEEN TRACKING ONE OF AMERICA'S MOST ICONIC PREDATORS-- THE GRAY WOLF.

[BIRDS SINGING]

SO RIGHT NOW, IT'S SPRING IN NORTHERN MINNESOTA, AND WE'RE ON OUR WAY TO A WOLF DEN.

IN SPRING, A LOT OF THINGS ARE CHANGING FOR WOLF PACKS.

THEIR DIET'S CHANGING, HOW THEY CH MOVE AS A PACK IS CHANGING, AND THEY'RE HAVING PUPS.

AND SO, THAT'S REALLY AN IMPORTANT THING THAT WE'RE E TRYING TO UNDERSTAND.

AND SO, WE'RE TRYING TO GET ESTIMATES OF HOW MANY PUPS THEY HAVE, SO WE'RE GONNA GO TO THIS DEN HERE, WHICH IS JUST OVER IN THE WOODS RIGHT HERE, AND WE'RE GONNA TRY AND SEE HOW MANY PUPS THEY HAVE AND-AND HOW GOOD A SHAPE THE PUPS ARE IN.

[BIRDS SINGING] SO WE'RE ALMOST TO THE BOWMAN BAY ROCK DEN.

IT'S UNDERNEATH THIS NICE ROCK BOULDER, SO IT'S A PERFECT SPOT TO HAVE A DEN.

SO WE'RE GONNA SEE IF THERE'S ANY PUPS IN IT.

WE KNOW IT'S, UH, THE DEN, BECAUSE OF THE PREVIOUS COUPLE YEARS, AND-AND USUALLY WHAT HAPPENS IS THE PUPS ARE WAY UP IN THERE.

SO WE'RE LOOKING IN THIS BOULDER FOR ANY SIGN OF WOLF PUPS.

AND THERE'S A LOT OF PORCUPINE SCAT, UH, BECAUSE PORCUPINES USE THESE FOR DENS IN THE WINTER, BUT THERE'S NO SIGN OF WOLF PUPS ANYWHERE HERE.

SO THE WOLVES DEFINITELY HAVEN'T USED THIS DEN THIS YEAR, BUT N WE'RE GONNA CHECK OUT OUR REMOTE CAMERAS THAT WE HAVE AROUND HERE DEN THIS YEAR, BUT AND SEE IF THE WOLVES ACTUALLY CAME TO CHECK THIS SPOT OUT.

DO WE HAVE ANYTHING INTERESTING?

WE'VE SEEN SQUIRRELS...

DEER.

A DEER.

A MOUSE.

A MOUSE.

A MOUSE COMING THROUGH.

GOOD CAMERAS.

MORE SNOW.

PORCUPINE.

WELL, UH...

YEAH, CHECKING THE SPOT.

THAT'S THE WAY IT GOES, RIGHT?

WE'LL BE BACK.

WE'LL SEE WHAT ELSE WE CAN FIND.

WHAT'S THAT...?

UNFORTUNATELY... THERE'S NO PUPS IN THIS DEN, EITHER, SO... UH, LET'S SEE HERE.

SNOWSHOE HARES.

THERE'S AT LEAST ONE HARE THAT REALLY LIKES THIS AREA.

OH, YEAH, A WOLF CAME IN HERE, CHECKED IT OUT.

CHECKED IT OUT [BIRD CAWING, BIRDS SINGING]

UH, SNIFFING AROUND.

THERE'S STILL A TON OF SNOW HERE.

OH, THIS WOLF HAS ITS HEAD ALL THE WAY DOWN IN THE DEN, LIKE IT'S DIGGING IT OUT OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT OR CHECKING IT OUT.

SEE, AND THERE'S ANOTHER WOLF HERE THAT CAME AND CHECKED IT OUT.

IT'S REALLY INTERESTING THAT, UM... THAT THEY CHECKED OUT THE DEN, BUT THEY OBVIOUSLY DIDN'T WANT TO USE IT, AND IT'S JUST CURIOUS TO KNOW WHY THEY DIDN'T... WHY THE DEN WASN'T SUITABLE.

SO WE'RE ON OUR WAY TO THE SHEEP RANCH DEN HERE.

THEY'VE USED THIS DEN SINCE 2016 EVERY YEAR, SO WE'RE PRETTY OPTIMISTIC THAT THEY MIGHT BE USING IT AGAIN THIS YEAR AT SOME POINT.

NOTHING HERE, EITHER.

G WELL, THERE'S JUST A LAYER OF ICE IN THE BOTTOM OF THE DEN, AND SO, UH, IT'S LIKELY THAT THE WOLVES WOULDN'T WANT TO CHOOSE A SPOT LIKE THIS, 'CAUSE THEIR PUPS, IF THEY WERE IN THERE, WOULD JUST BE SITTING IN A PUDDLE OF WATER.

SO IT'S A LIKELY A RESULT OF THE RE LIGHT WINTER WE'VE BEEN HAVING, AND THE FACT THAT THE ICE HASN'T BEEN ABLE TO DRAIN OUT OF THESE DENS.

I SO NO PUPS HERE.

THERE IS A WOLF TRACK RIGHT THERE, THOUGH, UM, SO THEY OBVIOUSLY CAME THROUGH HERE AND CHECKED THIS AREA OUT RECENTLY, BUT OBVIOUSLY DECIDED NOT TO USE IT, PROBABLY BECAUSE IT'S FLOODED, AND THE PUPS WOULDN'T HAVE ANYWHERE TO STAY DRY.

[WATER TRICKLING]

WE'RE GOING TO TRY TO GET GOING HERE, AND WE'RE OPTIMISTIC WE'RE STILL GOING TO FIND THEM.

Chang: WELL, TOM AND HIS TEAM ARE SEEING A LOT OF ACTION, SO, WE'LL CHECK BACK IN WITH THEM LATER AS THEY CONTINUE THEIR SEARCH FOR THOSE WOLVES.

BUT BACK HERE AT SEQUOIA NATIONAL PARK, WE HAVE A CROSS SECTION OF A REDWOOD, RIGHT?

AV THERE'S A LOT OF INFORMATION ON HERE.

THERE IS.

THERE'S A LOT OF INFORMATION.

THIS IS A CHUNK OF A COASTAL T REDWOOD THAT TIPPED OVER IN A... IN A YARD IN A NEARBY TOWN, AND THEY WERE KIND ENOUGH TO SHARE IT WITH US.

UH, AND SCIENTISTS LOOKING BACK AT, UH, THE HISTORY OF CLIMATE TO UNDERSTAND CURRENT CLIMATE CHANGE REALLY RELY ON TREE RINGS, SO LET'S DIVE IN HERE.

THESE DARK RINGS THAT YOU SEE IN THIS SLAB REPRESENT SUMMER GROWTH, RIGHT?

WHEN THINGS ARE DRY AND THE TREE CAN HARDLY MAKE ANY GOOD CELLS AT ALL, SO THEY'RE ALL PACKED TOGETHER, AND THEY MAKE THAT DARK BAND.

AND ALL THE REST OF THE GROWTH THAT YOU SEE OCCURS DURING SPRINGTIME.

Chang: AND I WAS TOLD THIS IS A KNOT, BUT THIS WAS A BRANCH PREVIOUSLY?

THERE WAS A BRANCH STICKING OUT THAT WAY, SO YOU CAN SEE THE KNOT THAT IT MADE THERE.

Chang: AND IT'S A YOUNG REDWOOD, ONLY ABOUT 40 YEARS OLD, RIGHT?

E

THIS IS ONLY ABOUT 40 YEARS OLD, BUT IT STILL CAPTURES SOME REALLY INTERESTING CLIMATE INFORMATION.

O THE WIDTH OF THE RINGS VARIES DEPENDING ON THE... THE, UH, CONDITIONS IN SPRINGTIME.

AND YOU CAN SEE THAT THIS TREE DEPENDING ON THE CONDITIONS IN SPRI WAS GROWING REALLY WELL YEARS AGO.

IT HAD LOTS OF WIDE RINGS, A FEW NARROW ONES, BUT IF YOU COME ALL THE WAY OUT TO THE EDGE, YOU'LL SEE A BAND OF REALLY TIGHT RINGS WHERE THE TREE WAS HARDLY GROWING AT ALL.

AND IF YOU COUNT THOSE RINGS, THEY ADD UP TO SEVEN.

THE LAST SEVEN YEARS, WHICH, UH, REPRESENT THE CALIFORNIA'S RECENT DROUGHT.

Chang: BUT YOU WERE TELLING ME THAT SOME OF THESE REDWOODS AROUND HERE CAN BE HUNDREDS OF YEARS OLD AND HAVE THAT MUCH DATA.

THAT'S RIGHT.

SO, TREE RINGS DATE BACK HUNDREDS OF YEARS FOR TREES LIKE REDWOODS, BUT IF YOU GO BACK UP INTO THE MOUNTAINS BEHIND US, WHERE THE SEQUOIAS ARE, YOU CAN HAVE THOUSANDS OF YEARS OF CLIMATE RECORDS ALL LOCKED UP IN HERE IN THESE TREE RINGS.

Chang: WELL, THIS YEAR HAS BEEN RECORD RAINFALL AND SNOWFALL, SO HOPEFULLY, THEY'RE MAKING BIG FAT RINGS AROUND HERE.

WE ALSO HAVE BEAUTIFUL FLOWERS AND WILDFLOWERS BLOOMING ALL AROUND US.

AND WE WANT YOU TO SHARE YOUR WE BEAUTIFUL FLOWER PICTURES WITH US.

SHARE THEM ON THE PBS NATURE FACEBOOK PAGE SO WE CAN SEE WHAT'S BLOOMING ALL ACROSS THE T COUNTRY, AND WE'LL FEATURE SOME OF THEM ON OUR OFFICIAL 'AMERICAN SPRING LIVE' WEBSITE LATER.

N BUT RIGHT NOW, ON THE BANKS OF THE KAWEAH RIVER RUNNING BELOW US HERE IS ANOTHER TEAM MEMBER, INSECT SCIENTIST PHIL TORRES.

WHAT DO YOU GOT THERE, PHIL?

HEY, YOU GUYS.

D WELL, I'M DOING ONE OF MY FAVORITE ACTIVITIES EVER, WHICH IS WALKING ON THE SIDE OF A CH RIVER LOOKING FOR AQUATIC INSECTS WHILE FLIPPING STONES HERE.

NOW, IT'S A REALLY GOOD TIME, BUT IT WAS ALSO ONE OF THE FIRST JOBS I EVER DID AS A BIOLOGIST WAS STUDYING AQUATIC INSECTS, SO ME AND THIS HABITAT GO WAY BACK.

AND I WANT TO SEE IF I CAN FIND SOMETHING FOR YOU.

AGAIN, THIS IS LIVE TELEVISION, SO NO PROMISES, BUT WE'LL SEE IF THEY ARE HERE.

ANYBODY HOME?

THEY'RE IN THIS RIVER.

WE WILL SHOW YOU SOME AQUATIC BUGS BY THE END OF THE NIGHT, BUT LET ME CHECK ONE MORE.

ALL RIGHT.

WELL, I'M GOING TO FIND SOME, L BUT I WANT YOU TO KNOW THAT WHEN YOU SEE THESE AQUATIC INSECTS, THEY'RE NOT JUST AN INDICATOR OF SPRING.

THEY ARE ALSO WHAT IS KNOWN AS A 'BIOINDICATOR,' BECAUSE THEY'RE REALLY SENSITIVE TO POLLUTION.

SO, WHERE THERE ARE AQUATIC BUGS, THAT MEANS THE WATER IS REALLY HEALTHY AND CLEAN.

AND THERE'S NO SURPRISE, 'CAUSE LOOK BEHIND ME.

THAT UP THERE-- THAT IS THE SIERRA.

RE, THAT IS THAT IS WHERE SEQUOIA NATIONAL PARK IS, SO THIS IS ALL SNOWMELT COMING DOWN HERE.

IT IS ALL REALLY, REALLY CLEAN WATER, AND IT IS ALSO REALLY POWERFUL WATER.

AND I GOT A CHANCE TO FEEL THAT LL FIRSTHAND ON A RIVER RAFTING TRIP.

FORWARD!

GO, GO, GO, GO, GO!

WE'RE HERE ON THE MERCED RIVER AT THE BASE OF YOSEMITE.

AND JUST LOOK AT ALL THIS WATER IN ACTION.

NOW, IF YOU FOLLOWED THIS RIVER ALL THE WAY BACKWARDS, YOU'D FIND A BUNCH OF SNOW-- SNOW THAT HAS BEEN FALLING ALL WINTER LONG.

AND NOW THAT SPRING IS HERE, AND THE SUN IS OUT-- OOH, WE MADE IT THROUGH THAT-- THAT SNOW IS BEGINNING TO MELT.

AND AS IT MELTS DOWN, IT ALL COMES TOGETHER IN A RIVER LIKE THIS.

AND IT IS JUST SO POWERFUL TO BE IN THIS AND REALLY EXPERIENCE SPRING IN FULL FORCE.

BACK PADDLE.

BACK PADDLE.

[WHOOPING]

GOOD.

GOOD.

[WHOOPS]

OH, THAT WAS ABSOLUTELY WILD.

EVERY AREA OF THIS RIVER IS A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT, BUT ALL OF IT IS JUST BOOMING WITH SPRING RIGHT NOW.

NOW, THE REASON WHY WE PULLED OFF IN THIS AREA IS BECAUSE IT'S A LITTLE BIT CALMER, AND I SEE A LI TINY LITTLE STREAM COMING INTO THIS RIVER, AND THAT USUALLY MAKES IT THE PERFECT BREEDING GROUND FOR CALIFORNIA NEWTS.

NOW, JUST AS THE SEASONS CHANGE, THESE NEWTS CHANGE, TOO.

BECAUSE WHEN THE MALE NEWTS ARE ON LAND, THEY DON'T REALLY NEED TO BE ABLE TO SWIM, BUT THE SECOND YOU GET INTO A RIVER LIKE THIS, YOU BETTER BE ABLE TO SWIM AND HOLD ON.

SO THEY ACTUALLY GO THROUGH A MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGE WHERE THEIR TOES GET GRIPPIER, THEIR TAIL BECOMES MORE LIKE A RUDDER, AND WHAT THEY'RE DOING IS THEY'RE ALL KIND OF WAITING ON THE SHORE FOR A FEMALE TO COME IN.

AS YOU CAN SEE, ONCE THIS FEMALE GETS IN THE WATER, ALL OF THESE MALES START TO SWARM THE FEMALE AND FORM WHAT IS CALLED A MATING BALL.

NOW, ONE OF THOSE IS GOING TO WIN OUT.

AND THIS MALE TODAY IS THE WINNER.

WELL, IT LOOKS LIKE THESE NEWTS HAVE GONE ON THEIR WAY TO DO THEIR MATING AND LAY THEIR EGGS, T SO I SAY WE GET BACK ON THE BOAT, SEE WHAT ELSE WE CAN FIND.

THIS RIVER REPRESENTS MORE THAN WHAT WE'RE SEEING RIGHT HERE, BECAUSE THIS RIVER IS ONE OF THE FEW LEFT IN CALIFORNIA THAT IS FREE-FLOWING ALL THE WAY DOWN.

THERE ARE NO DAMS STOPPING IT.

EVERYTHING WE SEE HERE WILL GO INTO THE VALLEYS BELOW, AND THAT IS WHAT DRIVES CALIFORNIA'S AGRICULTURE.

ALL OF THIS WATER, IT IS RICH IN THINGS LIKE NUTRIENTS AND MINERALS, FEEDING ALMONDS OR STRAWBERRIES OR TOMATOES.

YOU KNOW, I CAN'T EXPRESS JUST HOW CRITICAL THAT SNOW IN THE WINTER IS TO WHAT WE GET TO EXPERIENCE TODAY IN SPRING.

I THINK WE GOT TO PADDLE.

OOF!

SO IF YOU LOOK UP INTO THESE HILLS, YOU WILL SEE THEY ARE COVERED IN FLOWERS, AND THESE FLOWERS ARE PART OF THIS SUPER BLOOM HAPPENING IN CALIFORNIA, WHERE THEY HAD SUCH A GOOD WINTER FULL OF RAIN AND SNOW THAT ALL OF THESE FLOWERS WERE, LIKE, 'THIS IS OUR YEAR.'

E AND THAT'S WHERE CLIMATE CHANGE CAN ACTUALLY BE TRICKY, BECAUSE C AS IT CHANGES CERTAIN THINGS, LIKE TEMPERATURE OR PRECIPITATION, THAT CAN DRASTICALLY AFFECT WHEN SOME OF THESE FLOWERS BLOOM, WHICH CAN DRASTICALLY AFFECT THE THINGS THAT RELY ON THOSE FLOWERS AND THOSE PLANTS, LIKE BUTTERFLIES AND BEES AND EVEN SOME BIRDS.

ALL RIGHT, WELL, IT HAS BEEN SOME BIRDS.

ALL RIGHT.

AN ABSOLUTELY INCREDIBLE DAY HERE ON THE MERCED RIVER.

INCREDIBLE DAY HERE ON THE WE'VE SEEN ALL THE WONDERS THAT SPRING CAN OFFER.

CLEARLY THERE'S A LOT OF WATER, BUT THERE'S ALSO A LOT OF LIFE AND REBIRTH, AND THAT IS JUST ONE OF MY FAVORITE PARTS OF SPRING.

OH, THAT WAS SUCH A FUN TIME OUT ON THE RIVER.

MAKES ME WANT TO GET OUT ON THE KAWEAH, THOUGH IT'S A LITTLE TOO POWERFUL FOR MY RAFTING SKILLS, SO I THINK I'LL STICK TO THE SHORE AND JUST HANG OUT WITH AQUATIC INSECTS.

PO AND THIS IS WHAT WE GOT.

THESE ARE SOME OF THE ONES THAT K I'LL STI WE'VE BEEN FINDING HERE TODAY.

RE AND LOOK F AND TAKE A LOOK AT THEM.

SO, WE HAVE MAYFLIES IN HERE.

WE HAVE STONE FLIES IN HERE.

IF YOU'RE A FLY-FISHER, YOU KNOW WHAT THESE ARE, BECAUSE THESE MAKE GREAT FISH FOOD.

THEY ARE ADAPTED TO THIS AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT.

THEY HAVE GILLS, EVEN.

SO, WE'RE GONNA PUT THEM BACK IN THEIR HOME AND, UH... HAPPY SWIMMING, LITTLE GUYS.

ENJOY YOUR TIME OUT THERE.

NOW, IF YOU LIKE NATURE AS MUCH AS I DO-- AND I HAVE A FEELING YOU DO-- YOU'RE GOING TO LOVE CITIZEN SCIENCE.

I THESE ARE RESEARCH PROJECTS THAT YOU CAN GET INVOLVED IN AND CONTRIBUTE TO REAL SCIENCE.

AND TO FIND OUT MORE INFORMATION, CHECK OUT OUR PBS NATURE FACEBOOK PAGE, AND WHILE YOU'RE ON THERE, PLEASE, LEAVE SOME COMMENTS, LEAVE SOME OK QUESTIONS. AND AT THE END OF THE HOUR, WE'RE GOING TO BE ANSWERING SOME OF THOSE QUESTIONS LIVE ON AIR.

SO MAKE 'EM SOME GOOD ONES.

BACK TO YOU GUYS.

Chang: THANKS SO MUCH, PHIL.

YOU KNOW, TONIGHT WE'RE TALKING ABOUT CONNECTIONS, AND ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT SPRING CONNECTORS ON THE PLANET IS THE HONEYBEE, AND THEY'RE AN ESSENTIAL PART OF POLLINATION, NOT JUST FOR FLOWERS, BUT FOR AGRICULTURE, FOR CROPS TO REPRODUCE.

AND SPRING IS REALLY WHEN THEY GET TO WORK, RIGHT, THOR?

IT IS A BUSY TIME FOR BEES INDEED, BUT HONEYBEES HAVE BEEN SUFFERING LATELY FROM SOMETHING SCIENTISTS HAVE BEGUN TO CALL 'MULTIPLE-STRESS DISORDER.'

NOT JUST ONE MALADY, BUT A IS COMBINATION OF FACTORS THAT ARE AFFECTING THEIR POPULATIONS-- PESTICIDES AND PATHOGENS AND MALADY, BUT A CO PARASITES, ALL SORTS OF THINGS MAKING TROUBLE FOR THESE BEES.

AND THAT MEANS THAT REPRODUCTION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN EVER.

I SO, THAT'S TRADITIONALLY A SPRINGTIME ACTIVITY FOR BEEKEEPERS, WHEN THEY DIVIDE THE HIVES.

WH

Chang: AND IT'S CALLED RE-QUEENING, AND THAT IS EXACTLY WHAT WE'RE MIMICKING TONIGHT-- THE BEHAVIOR OF HOW A BEE COLONY REHIVES, BUT WE'RE DOING IT LIVE.

SO, LET'S GO TO SAN FRANCISCO, TO A COMMUNITY GARDEN THERE T WHERE ABOUT AN HOUR AGO BEEKEEPER MARC JOHNSON PLACED A QUEEN BEE-- THERE SHE IS-- IN A BOX.

THEY PUT HER ON A SPECIAL CONTAINER ON A BRANCH SO THAT HER COLONY WOULD LITERALLY MAKE A BEELINE AND FOLLOW HER.

AND THERE IT IS, TIED TO THE BRANCH.

ABOUT AN HOUR LATER, LET'S CHECK IT OUT.

OH, THERE IS THE SWARM.

AND YOU CAN'T EVEN SEE THE QUEEN ANYMORE.

SEE THE QUEEN SHE'S INSIDE OF THAT SWARM.

SO, MARC, NOW LET'S SEE HOW IT'S GOING.

IS THAT WHAT YOU WANTED THE BEES TO DO?

WELL, YOU KNOW, I THINK THEY THOUGHT THAT THEY WERE GOING TO BE ON TV AND THEY ARE PERFORMING SPECTACULARLY.

THIS IS A PERFECT SWARM.

THERE'S ABOUT 8,000 BEES HERE, AND, UM, AGAIN, THE QUEEN IS RIGHT IN HERE SOMEWHERE.

YOU CAN'T SEE HER, BECAUSE THEY HAVE ALL SWARMED AROUND HER.

THEY'RE PROTECTING HER.

THEY'RE KEEPING HER WARM.

AS THOR SAID, SPRINGTIME IS A GREAT TIME FOR SWARMS.

THAT'S WHEN THEY'RE COMING OUT OF THE WINTERTIME.

THE HIVES ARE EXPANDING.

THE COLONIES ARE EXPANDING.

AND SOMETIMES THEY RUN OUT OF ROOM.

OH, HALF THE... HALF OF THE BEES AND THE QUEEN, THEY LEAVE THE HIVE.

THEY LEAVE HALF THE BEES AND SOME OTHER QUEENS BEHIND, AND THEY TAKE OFF IN A SWARM BALL.

IN THE AIR, SWARMS ARE SPECTACULAR.

IT'S LIKE A BIG CLOUD OF BEES, AND IT SOUNDS LIKE A LOCOMOTIVE.

THEY'RE NOT DANGEROUS.

THEY'RE JUST BEAUTIFUL.

SO THESE, UM... ARE NOT DANGEROUS.

SO IF YOU SEE A SWARM, D IT'S NOT DANGEROUS.

THEY'RE ALL GOOD.

BEFORE BEES SWARM, THEY PROVISION THEMSELVES.

THEY FEED FOR ABOUT FOUR DAYS.

SO THEY'RE PRETTY HAPPY.

THEY'VE GOT SOME TIME TO FIND A NEW HOME.

BUT A LOT OF TIMES THE QUEEN, SHE'S GOT THIS BIG BODY AND THESE LITTLE TINY WINGS, AND SHE'LL BE FLYING AROUND, AND SHE WILL, INSTEAD OF FINDING A HOLLOW IN A TREE, SHE'LL FIND A TREE BRANCH.

AND THAT'S WHEN THEY FORM A SWARM LIKE THIS.

AND THEN BEEKEEPERS LIKE ME AND THE OTHERS HERE, WE GO OUT AND WE GET THEM INTO A NEW HOME.

T SO, THIS IS-- WE'RE GOING TO GIVE THEM A NEW HOME-- A FULLY FINISHED CONDO IN SAN FRANCISCO.

YOU KNOW WHAT THAT'S WORTH?

S WO UM, ANYWAY, LET'S, UH... LET'S GET READY TO GO.

WE'RE GONNA DUMP THEM IN THE... IN THE HIVE BODY... GIVE THEM A NEW HOME.

AND READY?

LOOK AT THAT.

SO, WE'RE GOING TO TAKE THE QUEEN OFF, BECAUSE WHEREVER THE QUEEN GOES, THEY GO.

SO THEY'RE SAYING, 'WHERE'D MOM GO?'

THERE WE GO.

PUT HER IN.

AND THEY WILL ALL STAY IN THERE.

YEAH, PUT HER IN THE CENTER.

ALL RIGHT.

SO... WE'RE GOING TO LET THESE GIRLS SETTLE IN HERE.

WE'RE GONNA TAKE THEM UP TO THEIR NEW HOME WITH THE OTHER HIVES UP ABOVE, AND WE'LL CHECK IN WITH THEM LATER.

COOL.

Chang: MARC MANAGED TO STAY SUPREMELY CALM IN THE MIDDLE OF A LIVE BEE SWARM.

THANKS SO MUCH, MARC.

LET'S GO BACK TO PHIL AND CHECK OUT WHAT HE'S DOING.

WELL, YOU KNOW, YOU CAN'T TALK ABOUT BEES WITHOUT TALKING ABOUT POLLINATION.

SO LET ME GIVE YOU A LITTLE RUNDOWN ON POLLINATION.

YOU SEE A BEAUTIFUL FLOWER LIKE THIS?

WELL, THESE BEAUTIFUL COLORS AREN'T JUST FOR US TO SIT AND ENJOY, ALTHOUGH I AM SITTING AND ENJOYING IT.

THESE COLORS ARE A SIGNAL TO POLLINATORS LIKE BEES SAYING, 'HEY, I HAVE A TASTY TREAT INSIDE.'

LL AND THAT TASTY TREAT IS WHAT WE LIKE TO CALL NECTAR.

NOW, WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THAT BEE LANDS ON THIS TO GET SOME NECTAR-- LOOK RIGHT HERE.

E SEE THAT?

THERE'S A LITTLE BIT OF YELLOW RIGHT THERE.

THAT IS THE ANTHER THAT POPS OUT AND COVERS THAT BEE IN POLLEN.

AND WHEN THAT BEE GOES FROM THIS FLOWER TO ANOTHER FLOWER WAY OVER THERE, THAT IS WHAT WE CALL POLLINATION.

SO THOSE BEES ARE HELPING FLOWERS REPRODUCE.

NOW, IT'S INCREDIBLE THE AMOUNT OF DATA YOU CAN GET OUT OF JUST OBSERVING A SINGLE FLOWER.

AND THERE IS A CITIZEN SCIENCE PROJECT JUST LIKE THAT CALLED THE GREAT SUNFLOWER PROJECT.

AND IT REALLY IS GREAT.

TAKE A LOOK.

ARE WE PUTTING THE WINGS IN THE RIGHT PLACE?

AR I AM ANNA RAQUEL TOMAS, AND I TEACH FOURTH GRADE, BUT TODAY I AM A CITIZEN SCIENTIST.

WHEN WE TRIED TO DO THE BEE COLLECTION, WHAT HAPPENED?

...AND MY STUDENTS ARE, TOO.

♪ BEES ARE AWESOME THEY POLINATE OUR CROPS RISE TO THE TOP THE KILLING NEEDS TO STOP. ♪ ('Flight of the Bumblebee' playing)

THE GREAT SUNFLOWER PROJECT IS WHERE YOU LOOK AT YOUR HABITAT AROUND YOU, AND YOU SEE IF IT'S HEALTHY FOR BEES.

WATCH!

THE KIDS TODAY DID WHAT WE CALL AN AREA COUNT, WHERE THEY CAN LOOK AT A FLOWER, AND THEY COLLECT DATA ON THE VISITORS TO THAT FLOWER, THE POLLINATORS.

I SEE IT. I SEE ONE.

OOH!

CITIZEN SCIENCE MAKES YOU BECOME SOMEONE WHO LOOKS AT THE WORLD AS IF YOU'RE PART OF THIS HUGE, IMPORTANT ECOSYSTEM.

WE COUNTED BEES OUTSIDE, AND WE NEED TO DO SOMETHING WITH THOSE NUMBERS.

'CAUSE THESE KIDS ARE GOING TO HELP US DEAL WITH THE PROBLEMS THAT HUMANS ARE CREATING.

I LEARNED THAT THERE IS A LOT MORE TO BEES THAN WHEN YOU... FOR THE FIRST GLANCE.

THEY ARE VERY COMPLICATED CREATURES.

SOME BEES ARE CALLED SPECIALISTS THAT DO ONLY ONE IC FLOWER.

AND I THOUGHT THAT WAS SUPER INTERESTING.

KIDS, NOW IT'S TIME FOR OUR BEE CELEBRATION DANCE.

(cheering)

THE MAGIC HERE IS, THE INFORMATION THAT WE LEARN IN THE CLASSROOM GOES TO THE PARENTS, IT GOES TO THE BROADER COMMUNITY.

AND I REALLY THINK THAT'S ACTUALLY HOW WE'RE GOING TO CHANGE THE WORLD.

YOU KNOW, SCIENCE IS ALL ABOUT ASKING GOOD QUESTIONS, OU AND THAT PROJECT IS SUCH A GREAT EXAMPLE OF THE SCIENTIFIC AT EXAMPLE OF T METHOD, WHERE THE OBSERVATIONS THOSE KIDS ARE MAKING WILL WILL HELP SCIENTISTS MAKE HYPOTHESES, OR PREDICTIONS, ABOUT WHAT'S GOING ON IN NATURE, AND THEN THEY CAN GO OUT THERE AND TEST IT AND GET SOME RESULTS.

AND THE BEAUTY OF SCIENCE IS, ONCE YOU GET YOUR RESULTS AND YOUR ANSWERS, YOU GET MORE QUESTIONS.

SO SCIENCE JUST KEEPS GOING ON, AND THAT'S WHY IT'S THE MOST FUN JOB EVER.

THERE'S A LOT OF MYSTERIES TO SOLVE OUT THERE.

NOW, IF YOU WANT TO START YOUR OWN POLLINATOR GROUP, YOU CAN DO THIS.

AND THE WAY YOU CAN IS TO FIND OUT MORE INFORMATION ON OUR PBS NATURE FACEBOOK PAGE.

AND WHILE YOU'RE ON THERE, PLEASE HIT US WITH YOUR COMMENTS AND HIT US WITH SOME REALLY K GREAT QUESTIONS, AND AT THE END OF THE HOUR, WE'RE GONNA BE GOING TO THOSE LIVE AND ANSWERING SOME REALLY GOOD, TOUGH ONES.

BUT FOR NOW I'M JUST ENJOYING TIS RIVERSIDE, AND I'M GONNA KEEP EXPLORING AND SEEING WHAT WE FIND.

BACK TO YOU GUYS.

W

Chang: THAT'S FABULOUS, PHIL.

WE'VE BEEN SO INSPIRED BY THE CITIZEN SCIENCE.

IT'S TURNING VIEWERS INTO DOERS.

NOW, YOU KNOW, WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT POLLINATION, WE DO USUALLY THINK ABOUT BEES DOING THE WORK, BUT SOME OF OUR MOST PROLIFIC POLLINATORS ARE NOT BEES, THEY'RE NOT BUTTERFLIES.

THEY'RE A CREATURE WHO WORKS THE NIGHT SHIFT.

LET'S GO LIVE NOW ALL THE WAY ACROSS THE COUNTRY TO CENTRAL FLORIDA TO CHECK IT OUT.

DR. AKITO KAWAHARA AND HIS TEAM ARE CONDUCTING A STUDY ON THE UNDERAPPRECIATED MOTH.

DR. KAWAHARA, TELL US ABOUT WHAT YOU'RE WORKING ON.

SO WE'RE OUT HERE IN FLORIDA STUDYING MOTHS AT OUR OUTDOOR FIELD LAB.

AND WHAT I HAVE HERE IS AN ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT AND A SHEET IN FRONT OF ME.

AND THIS LIGHT PRODUCES A LIGHT THAT MIMICS THE MOON TO ATTRACT MOTHS.

THE SUN HAS JUST SET AND MANY MOTHS ARE STARTING TO COME TO THIS LIGHT.

AND WHAT WE'RE DOING IS WE'RE DOCUMENTING THE BIODIVERSITY OF MOTHS, AND TRY-- TO TRY TO UNDERSTAND HOW CLIMATE CHANGE IS INFLUENCING THE EMERGENCE C TIMES OF MOTHS IN THE SPRING.

AND OVER HERE WE HAVE ANNA.

ANNA, WHAT DID YOU JUST FINE?

I JUST FOUND THIS REALLY COOL HAWK MOTH THAT CAME TO THE LIGHT.

AMAZING. LOOK AT THIS.

THIS IS A HAWK MOTH.

IT IS A POLLINATING NOCTURNAL MOTH, WHICH SIGNIFIES THE BEGINNING OF THE SPRING HERE IN FLORIDA.

PEOPLE OFTENTIMES THINK OF POLLINATION TO OCCUR ONLY DURING THE DAYTIME, BUT IN REALITY, ME, BUT IN REALITY, THERE ARE PLANTS THAT BLOOM ONLY AT NIGHT.

THERE ARE ABOUT 12,000 SPECIES OF MOTHS IN THE UNITED STATES AND ABOUT 1,000 OF THEM CAN BE FOUND RIGHT HERE IN CENTRAL FLORIDA.

AND MANY OF THEM MIGHT BE . UNKNOWN TO SCIENCE.

SO WE MIGHT EVEN FIND NEW SPECIES OF MOTHS HERE AT THIS SHEET TONIGHT.

AND HERE'S WHAT IT LOOKED LIKE LAST NIGHT.

SO IT'S 1:00 IN THE MORNING, :00 A.M., AND WE HAV AND WE'VE REACHED PEAK MOTH.

LOOK AT ALL THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF MOTH SPECIES THAT HAVE COME TO THE LIGHT.

WE HAVE LUNA MOTHS, INCHWORM MOTHS, IO MOTHS, EVEN AN EMERALD MOTH AND A POLYPHEMUS MOTH RIGHT HERE THAT JUST CAME IN A FEW MINUTES AGO.

A BUT ONE OF THE THINGS THAT I REALLY WANT TO DO NOW IS TO SHOW YOU ONE OF THE QUINTESSENTIAL NORTH AMERICAN MOTHS, WHICH IS THE UNDERWING MOTH.

THERE'S ONE-- OH, WOW, THERE'S ONE RIGHT THERE ON THAT SIDE RIGHT HERE.

OH, WOW, I CAN SEE THAT.

YEAH.

IT'S REALLY CAMOUFLAGED.

YEAH, IT LOOKS JUST LIKE THE TREE BARK.

DURING THE DAY, THE MOTHS REST ON TREE TRUNKS AND THIS IS THEIR PRIMARY DEFENSE AGAINST PREDATORS SUCH AS BIRDS.

BUT IF WE CAN LOOK UNDERNEATH THE WINGS, WE MIGHT SEE THE COLORS THAT THE UNDERWING MOTHS ARE NAMED FOR.

SO WHEN THE MOTH THINKS THAT A BIRD IS APPROACHING, THESE BRIGHT BANDED PATTERNS ARE REVEALED, AND THIS IS THOUGHT TO STARTLE THE BIRD AND GIVE THE MOTH A BETTER CHANCE OF ESCAPE.

HERE IN ORDWAY-SWISHER, WE'VE GOT AT LEAST HALF A DOZEN SPECIES OF UNDERWING MOTHS.

AND MANY OF THEM HAVE THESE DIFFERENT UNDERWING PATTERNS.

AND WE THINK THAT THESE PATTERNS INTERFERE WITH THE ABILITY OF BIRDS TO GET USED TO ANY ONE PARTICULAR COLOR.

THESE PATTERNS ARE BLACK AND PARTICULAR COLOR.

THESE PATTERNS ARE BLACK AND RED, PINK, ORANGE, AND THEY PROVIDE A COLLECTIVE DEFENSE FOR ALL UNDERWING SPECIES LIVING IN THIS FOREST.

WOW. THAT'S GREAT.

SO IT'S REALLY THIS-THIS DOCUMENTATION OF THE MOTHS AND THE ORGANISMS THAT ARE HERE THAT'S REALLY IMPORTANT.

AND IT ALLOWS US TO-TO UNDERSTAND WHAT KINDS OF BIODIVERSITY EXIST IN A PLACE LIKE THIS FOR SUCH UNDER-APPRECIATED ORGANISMS LIKE MOTHS.

Chang: THANKS, DR. KAWAHARA.

THEY ARE THE UNSUNG HEROES FOR SURE.

YOU KNOW, THOR, TONIGHT WE'RE TALKING ABOUT HOW SPRING CONNECTS PLANTS AND ANIMALS.

SO HOW DOES THE CLIMATE CHANGE FIGURE INTO ALL THIS?

WELL, IT FIGURES IN IN MANY WAYS, BUT IF YOU DRAW ON THAT EXAMPLE WE JUST LOOKED AT WITH THE, UH, THE MOTHS, HE MENTIONED THEY'RE STUDYING THE EFFECTS ON EMERGENT TIME OF MOTHS.

BUT A MOTH DOESN'T JUST INTERACT WHEN IT IS COMING OUT MOTHS, BUT A POTT DOE TO NECTAR, IT ALSO INTERACTS WITH PLANTS, UH, WHEN THE CATERPILLARS ARE FEEDING ON PLANTS.

SO THERE ARE TWO DISTINCT TIMES WHEN A MOTH IS INTERACTING.

AND IT HAS TO BE WELL-TIMED IM AT BOTH INSTANCES.

Chang: WELL, THIS IS 'AMERICAN SPRING LIVE,' AND I UNDERSTAND THAT WE NOW HAVE LIVE, A BOBCAT JUST NORTH OF LIVE A HERE.

AND WE CAN CONTINUE TO TALK ABOUT THE RIPPLE EFFECT THAT THE CLIMATE CHANGE MISMATCH HAS ON THE FOOD CHAIN, THOUGH, RIGHT?

AH, THERE IT IS, IT'S LIVE...

THERE'S THE BOBCAT.

Chang: ... IN MARIN COUNTY.

OH, IT'S-IT'S A COYOTE.

Chang: IT'S A COYOTE.

AND IT'S-- THIS IS LIVE.

IT'S BEING CAPTURED IN THE TALL GRASSLANDS, COASTAL GRASSLANDS OF MARIN COUNTY JUST NORTH OF HERE.

MARVELOUS.

Chang: IT'S INCREDIBLE TO SEE A COYOTE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE DAY LIKE THAT.

IT'S ONE PLACE WHERE APEX PREDATORS, THOUGH, SEEM TO BE CHANGING THEIR BEHAVIOR.

AS I MENTIONED, IT'S THE COASTAL MARIN COUNTY AREA HERE IN CALIFORNIA-- IT'S STUNNING-- OVERLOOKING THE PACIFIC OCEAN.

YEAH, AND THIS COYOTE WILL BE HUNTING FOR SMALL MAMMALS.

IT'LL BE HUNTING-- THEY'LL EVEN EAT INSECTS.

Chang: AND WE GO NOW TO WILDLIFE CINEMATOGRAPHER FILIPE DeANDRADE WHO IS STANDING BY.

FILIPE, TELL US WHAT YOU'RE SEEING THROUGH THAT LENS.

WHAT IS GOING ON, WILDLIFE WARRIORS?

WHAT I AM LOOKING AT RIGHT NOW, RS IN BEAUTIFUL COASTAL MARIN COUNTY, IS A WILD COYOTE.

WE PICKED THIS LOCATION FOR NO OTHER REASON THAN IT IS ONE OF THE BEST PLACES IN THE WORLD TO SEE BOBCATS.

NOW, THERE ARE 38 SPECIES OF WILDCATS IN THE WORLD, BOBCATS W, BEING ONE OF MY FAVORITES.

AND I HAVE SPENT THE LAST TWO WEEKS WITH DANIEL DIETRICH, THE LOCAL EXPERT, LOCAL GUIDE, STALKING THESE ELUSIVE CATS.

AND YOU MIGHT BE ASKING YOURSELF WHY ARE WE HERE IN THE DAY?

WHY ARE WE OUT HERE SCANNING THESE FIELDS DURING THE DAYTIME?

CATS ARE NIGHTTIME, USUALLY, PREDATORS, RIGHT?

WELL, CATS ARE GONNA BE WHERE THEIR PREY IS, AND BECAUSE THEIR PREY IS DIURNAL, BECAUSE THEY'RE MOVING THROUGHOUT THE DAY, THAT'S EXACTLY WHAT THE BOBCATS ARE DOING.

I'M GONNA GIVE YOU A QUICK OVERVIEW OF WHAT I'M LOOKING AT RIGHT NOW.

EW THIS IS THE VASTNESS OF THIS FIELD WHERE ANY GOPHERS, ANY RATS AND MICE COULD BE, WHICH IS EXACTLY WHAT THE BOBCATS ARE STALKING OUT HERE.

BUT I'VE SPENT THE LAST TWO WEEKS IN THE FIELDS HERE WITH DANIEL IN SEARCH OF THESE ELUSIVE CATS, AND I WANT TO SHOW YOU GUYS WHAT WE CAPTURED EARLIER.

SOME BEAUTIFUL NATURAL HISTORY BEHAVIOR.

WOW.

OH, MY GOSH.

WE ARE LOCKED ON TO A WILD BOBCAT RIGHT NOW.

THIS IS INCREDIBLE.

SHE'S NOT QUITE HUNTING.

SHE'S DEFINITELY KEEN.

IF SHE LOCKS ON TO SOMETHING DE SHE'S GONNA GO FOR IT.

BUT RIGHT NOW SHE'S JUST COMPLETELY EXPOSED, OUT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE FIELD WALKING AROUND.

SHE'S A GOOD BIT OF DISTANCE AWAY, BUT I'M STILL GONNA KEEP MY VOICE DOWN, BECAUSE THEIR HEARING IS ABSOLUTELY IN TUNE TO WHATEVER IS HAPPENING OUT HERE.

AND RIGHT NOW SHE'S LOCKED ON TO SOMETHING.

SHE'S MAKING HER WAY TOWARDS IT.

SHE'S GOT HER EARS POINTED FORWARD.

EARS FORWARD, HEAD DOWN, TRYING TO KEEP ANY-ANY MOVEMENTS TO A MINIMUM.

SHE'S RIGHT OVER IT RIGHT NOW.

RIGHT OVER IT.

RIGHT OVER IT.

I CAN SEE HER HEAD POINTING STRAIGHT DOWN, NOSE DOWN OVER IT.

SHE'S GOT HER LEFT ARM UP.

OH, SHE JUST MADE A STAB.

SHE MISSED.

NOW SHE'S LOOKING RIGHT DOWN THE BARREL OF MY LENS.

WOW.

SHE'S SHOWING ME HER BUTT AS SHE'S WALKING AWAY.

WHAT A GORGEOUS, GORGEOUS ING AWAY.

WHAT A GORGEOUS, CREATURE.

IT'S LIKE A BUFFET OUT HERE.

ALL OF THE VERMIN, THE GOPHERS, THE RATS, THE MICE, THIS IS WHAT THEY'RE HUNTING IN THESE FIELD.

VERY DISTINCT HUNTING TACTIC E WHERE SHE'S GONNA STAB HER ARM INTO THE GROUND, SEE IF SHE CAN PULL SOMETHING OUT.

THAT WAS INCREDIBLE.

Chang: FILIPE IS ABLE TO GIVE US PLAY-BY-PLAY OF AN APEX PREDATOR.

NOW, WE SHOULD NOTE, THAT THIS TYPE OF FILMING IS NOT SOMETHING YOU SHOULD TRY TO DO ON YOUR OWN.

F FILMING IS NOT SOMETHING FILIPE HAS A PROFESSIONAL BOBCAT TRACKER WITH HIM, SO NEITHER HE NOR THE CAT IS TANGLING WITH S EACH OTHER.

BUT THOR, THIS IS UNUSUAL TO SEE THE BOBCATS OUT DURING THE DAYTIME.

IT IS UNUSUAL AND IT'S A WONDERFUL EXAMPLE OF HOW EVEN AN APEX PREDATOR WILL ADJUST THEIR HABITS AS THEIR ENVIRONMENT CHANGES.

BECAUSE ANYONE WHO HAS A DOMESTIC CAT KNOWS THAT CATS ARE MOSTLY NOCTURNAL.

THEY'RE VERY ACTIVE AT NIGHT, AND THEY OFTEN NAP DURING THE DAY.

SO SEEING THAT BOBCAT SWITCH TO A DAYTIME HABIT IS REALLY SOMETHING.

Chang: FASCINATING.

AND, YOU KNOW, JUST ABOUT AN HOUR'S DRIVE NORTH, OR SOUTH, RATHER, OF THOSE BEAUTIFUL BOBCATS WE WERE JUST LOOKING AT, WE'VE BEEN LOOKING LIVE AT AN APIARY, WHICH IS THE NAME FOR A HOME FOR BEES, IN THE URBAN JUNGLE OF SAN FRANCISCO.

WH SO LET'S GO BACK THERE NOW-- THE SAN FRANCISCO SKYLINE-- THAT'S WHERE BEEKEEPER MARC JOHNSON HAS BEEN RELOCATING THAT SWARM OF BEES.

KEEPER MARC JOHNSON SO, MARC, TELL US WHAT'S HAPPENING NOW.

SO WE GOT THE BEES IN THEIR NEW HOME.

THEY SETTLED DOWN.

UM, BROUGHT THEM UP.

THEY'RE AMONG OTHER HIVES NOW.

AND, UH, WE'RE GONNA TAKE A ONG OTH QUICK LOOK INSIDE.

OH, LOOK AT THAT.

LOOK AT HOW CALM THEY ARE.

TAKE A LOOK INSIDE.

LOOK. THAT'S BEAUTIFUL.

SO WE FED THEM, SO THEY'RE IN HERE FEEDING.

SO THEY'RE IN HERE FEED UM, THE QUEEN'S IN HERE.

AND, UH, THEY'RE STARTING TO DO THEIR BEE STUFF.

TO THEY ARE MAKING, UH, MAKING COMB AND STORING HONEY.

SO IN THREE WEEKS THIS HIVE WILL LOOK LIKE THIS HIVE.

AND WE DID SOMETHING REALLY COOL.

WE PUT A LIVE CAMERA IN A HIVE, SO THE LIVE HIVE CAM IS UP.

SO I'M GONNA GO IN THIS HIVE AND SHOW YOU WHERE THIS ONE WILL BE IN THREE WEEKS.

I GAVE THEM A PUFF OF SMOKE TO CALM THEM DOWN.

OKAY.

HEY, GIRLS.

OH, WHAT A BEAUTIFUL FRAME OF BEES.

LOOK AT THAT.

SO THIS HERE, THIS IS ALL WORKER BROOD.

SO 98% OF THE HIVE ARE WORKERS.

THEY'RE FEMALE BEES.

TWO PERCENT ARE MALE BEES.

THEY KIND OF DO NOTHING.

EXCEPT BE FED.

B OVER HERE YOU CAN SEE SOME DRONE BROOD, THE MALE BEE BROOD.

IT LOOKS DIFFERENT.

AD ON THIS HIVE, SO YOU'VE GOT HONEY STORAGE HERE.

YOU'RE GONNA HAVE POLLEN IN HERE.

AND IF YOU LOOK IN REAL TIGHT, YOU CAN SEE THAT THERE ARE SOME LARVA IN THERE.

THOSE ARE BABIES IN DEVELOPMENT.

THAT'S NICE.

WHAT A NICE FRAME OF BEES.

SO IT'S REALLY IMPORTANT THAT WE HELP PROTECT THESE BEES.

E AND THEY'RE UNDER STRESS.

OUR CLIMATE CHANGE H-HAS REALLY, UM, STRESSED THEM OUT.

CALIFORNIA WILDFIRES AFFECTED THEM.

THEY COULDN'T SEE.

UM, IT, UH, AFFECTED THEIR SENSE OF SMELL.

WE HAVE POLLUTION.

WE HAVE PESTS.

WE HAVE PESTICIDES, AND WE HAVE POPULATION, HABITAT LOSS.

AND SO THEY'RE ALL UNDER STRESS.

AND, SO, WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?

IT'S IMPORTANT BECAUSE ONE OUT OF EVERY THREE BITES OF WHAT YOU EAT IS POLLINATED BY A HONEYBEE.

THAT IS SO COOL.

UM, I'M GONNA GIVE YOU ONE THING, WHICH IS ONE-TWELFTH OF A TEASPOON OF HONEY IS WHAT A BEE MAKES IN ITS LIFETIME.

SO NEXT TIME YOU SLATHER IT ON AN ENGLISH MUFFIN, GO OUT AND THANK 12 BEES.

ALL RIGHT.

LET ME PUT THEM BACK IN.

WE'RE GONNA LET THEM GET BACK TO WORK.

THERE IS SOME TRUTH IN BUSY AS A BEE.

SO, BEELINE BACK TO YOU.

Chang: MARC, I KNOW YOU'RE WEARING A LOT OF PROTECTIVE GEAR BECAUSE HONEYBEES SOMETIMES STING.

BUT MY FRIEND THOR HERE HAS ASSURED ME THAT THESE BEES DO NOT STING.

I'M REMAINING CALM.

THEY'RE GENTLER, RIGHT, BY COMPARISON.

WHY ARE THESE MASON BEES GENTLE?

THESE ARE GENTLE BECAUSE THESE MASON BEES REFLECT THE MORE COMMON BEE BEHAVIOR, WHICH IS A SOLITARY HABIT, NOT LIKE HONEYBEES THAT SWARM ALTOGETHER.

THESE ARE ONLY TOGETHER BECAUSE THEY'VE JUST EMERGED FROM WHAT AMOUNTS TO BEE HIBERNATION.

AND AS YOU SEE THEM FLYING OFF THERE, AND WE HAVE A WHOLE CONTAINER OF 500 HERE THAT ARE FLYING AWAY.

UH, THEY ARE GOING OFF, ALL THE FEMALES, TO MAKE THEIR OWN LITTLE TEENY NEST SOMEPLACE, AND... ES

Chang: BUT, YOU KNOW, T, YOU HAVE LITERALLY WRITTEN THE BOOK ON BEES, WHICH IS WHY I TRUST YOU ENOUGH LIKE THIS.

BUT THESE MASON BEES ARE ALSO IN DECLINE, TOO, RIGHT?

S ARE A

THEY ARE.

MASON BEES ARE SUFFERING FROM MANY OF THE SAME CHALLENGES THAT HONEYBEES FACE.

AND, SO, LUCKILY THERE ARE THINGS WE CAN DO TO HELP THEM IN NG OUR OWN BACKYARDS BY PLANTING FLOWERS AND ADDING NESTING HABITAT AND REDUCING THE USE OF PESTICIDES.

Chang: AND THAT'S GREAT.

AND YOU CAN PUT IN BEE-FRIENDLY PLANTS AND THINGS LIKE THIS.

BUT THESE ARE REALLY WORKER BEES.

N THE ORCHARDS AROUND HERE REALLY DEPEND ON THEM.

THEY ARE HARDWORKING, HARDWORKING INSECTS.

THEY POLLINATE ALL SORTS OF THINGS.

SE AND IT'S REALLY AN EXAMPLE OF THE LARGER, BROADER BEE DECLINES THAT WE'VE BEEN... BEE DECLINES AND INSECT DECLINES THAT WE'VE BEEN SEEING.

SO IT'S REALLY IMPORTANT TO DO WHAT WE CAN TO HELP THESE ESSENTIAL POLLINATORS.

Chang: AND, SO, EACH OF THESE FEMALES ARE THEIR OWN QUEEN.

YOU WERE SAYING THAT'S WHY THEY DON'T HAVE TO DEFEND THE HIVE.

THAT'S WHY THEY'RE NOT QUITE SO HOSTILE.

THEY'RE NOT QUITE AS AGGRESSIVE BECAUSE THEY JUST HAVE A TEENY LITTLE NEST TO DEFEND.

IT'S MUCH EASIER TO FLY AWAY THAN TRY TO DEFEND IT THE WAY A HONEYBEE WOULD WITH THAT BIG HIVE.

Chang: AND YET WE KNOW THAT BEES ARE NOT THE ONLY POLLINATORS.

AND, SO, WE SHOULDN'T FORGET OUR NOCTURNAL FRIENDS, THE POLLINATORS, AS WELL, THE MOTHS.

LET'S GO TO CENTRAL FLORIDA.

THAT'S WHERE DR. KAWAHARA IS STANDING BY.

HOW ARE THOSE MOTHS DOING TONIGHT?

SO, SINCE WE LAST SAW YOU, A

SO SINCE WE LA LOT OF MOTHS HAVE COME TO THE LIGHT.

HERE IS AN AMAZING ONE.

THIS IS A LUNA MOTH.

TAKE A LOOK AT THIS.

IT'S GREEN.

IT'S GORGEOUS.

AND IN TERMS OF SCIENCE, THIS MOTH IS ACTULLY QUITE IMPORTANT, AS WELL, BECAUSE THE DISTRIBUTION OF THIS MOTH HAS BEEN SLOWLY SHIFTING NORTHWARDS OWLY SHI AND ALSO WESTWARDS OVER THE LAST COUPLE YEARS DUE TO THE TEMPERATURE CHANGES IN THE UNITED STATES.

SO, LET'S GO OVER HERE AND TALK HE TO HARLAN, WHO HAS ONE OF THESE SPECIMENS OF THESE LUNA MOTHS AT HIS MICROSCOPE.

SO, HARLAN, DO YOU WANT TO TELL US A LITTLE BIT ABOUT THEM?

YEAH, SO, I'VE BEEN LOOKING AT THESE REALLY DISTINCTIVE HIND WINGS THAT THE LUNA MOTH HAS WITH THESE REALLY LONG TAILS.

AND THESE TAILS ARE BEAUTIFUL AND REALLY CHARACTERISTIC FOR LUNA MOTHS, BUT THEY'RE ALSO VERY FUNCTIONAL.

AND THE FUNCTION OF THESE TAILS IS THAT IT HELPS THE LUNA MOTH ESCAPE THEIR NIGHTTIME PREDATORS, WHICH ARE BATS.

AND, SO, WHEN A BAT COMES IN TO GRAB A LUNA MOTH IN FLIGHT, IT G NEEDS TO GRAB AHOLD OF THE BODY, BUT THESE TAILS ACTUALLY DISTRACT THE BAT, AND THE BAT ENDS UP WITH A MOUTHFUL OF THE TAIL, AND THE MOTH IS ABLE TO ESCAPE.

SO, THIS IS A REALLY IMPORTANT CONNECTION BETWEEN A PREDATOR AND PREY.

AND ANOTHER IMPORTANT CONNECTION IS BETWEEN PLANTS AND MOTHS.

AND WHEN WE THINK OF THE SPRINGTIME, WE THINK OF PLANTS BLOOMING, BUT THEY ALSO NEED POLLINATORS.

AND PLANTS USE LIGHT AS A TRIGGER, AND MOTHS USE TEMPERATURE.

AND THE PROBLEM IS THAT CLIMATE CHANGE IS SHIFTING AND MAKING THE TEMPERATURES WARMER EARLIER.

SO THIS MEANS THAT THE MOTHS AND LI THE PLANTS ARE OUT OF SYNC.

AND MOTHS DON'T HAVE THE FOOD THAT THEY NEED TO SURVIVE, AND PLANTS ALSO DON'T HAVE THE POLLINATORS FOR THEM TO DO WELL.

AND I LOVE MOTHS.

I'VE BEEN DOING THIS EVER SINCE I WAS A CHILD.

AND, UM, EVER SINCE... AND, SO, YOU CAN DO THIS, TOO.

ALL YOU NEED IS A SHEET AND A LIGHT TO DISCOVER SOME OF THESE AMAZING MOTHS.

Chang: YOUR ENTHUSIASM IS INFECTIOUS.

THANK YOU, DOCTOR.

AND, YOU KNOW, TONIGHT WE'RE LOOKING AT THE SCIENCE BEHIND MANY OF THE CONNECTIONS OF SPRING.

SCIENTISTS CALL THAT OFTEN, LIKE YOU, AN INFLUX OF ENERGY.

RIGHT, AN INFLUX OF ENERGY.

AND THIS REMINDS US OF SOMETHING WE PROBABLY ALL READ IN OUR HIGH SCHOOL BIOLOGY BOOKS, THE IMPORTANCE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS, THAT MAGICAL PROCESS, REALLY, WHERE PLANTS COMBINE WATER AND CARBON DIOXIDE WITH THE SUN'S RAYS TO PRODUCE STARCHES, WHICH D ARE REALLY THE BASIS OF OUR WHOLE FOOD CHAIN.

AND IT TRANSCENDS ALL THE WAY UP.

THAT ENERGY GOES ALL THE WAY UP FROM THAT BASIC PHOTOSYNTHETIC PROCESS ALL THE WAY UP TO APEX PREDATORS.

Chang: I FEEL LIKE WE'VE ALL ABSORBED SO MUCH SCIENCE FROM YOU OVER THE PAST THREE DAYS.

AND WE HAVE ANOTHER PARTNER IN SCIENCE, PHIL TORRES, WHO IS STANDING BY AT THE RIVER'S EDGE.

PHIL?

YOU GUYS, WE'VE BEEN SEEING SO MANY SIGNS OF SPRING TODAY, FROM THE RUSHING SNOWMELT TO THE BEES TO THOSE CUTE LITTLE WOLF PUPS.

AND WHO CAN FORGET THE BLOOMING OF FLOWERS.

I MEAN, LOOK HOW BEAUTIFUL THESE THINGS ARE.

I'VE BEEN SEEING ALL SORTS.

HEY, THERE'S A NATIVE BEE IN HERE RIGHT NOW.

S.

AND A BEETLE.

THESE FLOWERS ARE ACTIVE.

NOW, ONE OF MY FAVORITE SPRINGTIME FLOWERS IS THE LILAC.

I REMEMBER THEM FROM MY BACKYARD H GROWING UP, AND NOT ONLY WAS THEIR BLOOM BEAUTIFUL, BUT IT ALSO SMELLED JUST SO PERFECT AND AMAZING.

AND THERE WAS A CITIZEN SCIENCE PROJECT CALLED TRACK A LILAC THAT TRACKS THE BLOOM OF LILACS IN SPRING.

THEY HAVE OVER 60 YEARS OF DATA BACKING THEM UP, WHICH MAKES IT ONE OF THE MOST IMPRESSIVE PROJECTS EVER.

TAKE A LOOK.

I'M JANE WILLIAMSON-DAVENPORT.

I'M A FAMILY NURSE PRACTITIONER, AND TODAY I'M A CITIZEN SCIENTIST.

I GOT INVOLVED WITH TRACK A LILAC PROJECT BECAUSE IT'S A LILAC PROJECT BECAUSE IT'S A GREAT EXCUSE TO BE OUTSIDE, AND THE DESERT IS GLORIOUS AT THIS TIME OF YEAR.

IT'S NOT JUST THE LILACS.

IT'S THE SKY.

IT'S THE GROUND.

IT'S EVERYTHING.

INDIVIDUALS HAVE BEEN TRACKING AND REPORTING ON THE PHENOLOGY OF LILACS SINCE AT LEAST THE 1950s.

AND WE HOUSE THOSE DATA IN THE DATABASE MAINTAINED BY THE U.S.A. NATIONAL PHENOLOGY NETWORK.

THE DATA HAVE ENABLED US TO BE ABLE TO BETTER TRACK WHEN THE START OF SPRING IS OCCURRING.

AND WHAT WE ARE SEEING IS THAT DEPENDING ON WHERE YOU ARE, THE ONSET OF SPRING VARIES QUITE A BIT FROM YEAR TO YEAR.

BUT OVERALL WE'RE SEEING A VERY CLEAR TREND TOWARD EARLIER SPRINGS IN MUCH OF THE COUNTRY.

COUNTRY.

THESE LILACS ARE LOOKING PRETTY GOOD.

AND THEY ARE JUST ABOUT TO OPEN UP.

I THINK BEING A CITIZEN SCIENTIST IS OUR DUTY.

WATCHING OUR SURROUNDINGS, SEEING HOW IT CHANGES, AND THEN REPORTING IT.

THIS IS HOW WE GET THE BIG PICTURE OF WHAT'S HAPPENING IN OUR WORLD.

I ENCOURAGE EVERYBODY TO GET OUT THERE AND TRACK SOMETHING.

ALL RIGHT.

TAKE A LOOK AT WHAT WE JUST FOUND.

THIS IS ONE OF MY FAVORITE SIGNS OF SPRING.

THIS IS A HAWK MOTH CATERPILLAR.

NOW, WHEN WE WERE WATCHING DR.

KAWAHARA AT THAT SHEET, THERE WAS A HAWK MOTH ADULT MOTH.

THIS IS THE CATERPILLAR.

AND YOU CAN TELL IT'S A HAWK MOTH BY THAT HORN AT THE END.

HOW CHUNKY AND AMAZING IS THIS THING?

ALL RIGHT, I'M GONNA PUT YOU BACK.

YOU ENJOY YOUR DINNER.

GET IN THERE.

YOU ENJOY YOUR DIN AMAZING.

NOW LET'S GET BACK TO THOSE LILACS AND PULL UP A MAP HERE.

WHAT YOU'RE SEEING IS THE BLOOM, THE NORTHWARD BLOOM OF THAT FIRST LILAC OF THE YEAR SWEEPING ACROSS AMERICA.

AND THE AREA IN THE PINK, THAT'S A WHERE THE LILACS BLOOMED A LITTLE TOO EARLY.

AND THE AREA IN THE BLUE, THAT'S WHERE THEY BLOOMED A LITTLE TOO LATE.

SO IT'S COMPLEX OUT THERE.

BUT THAT'S WHY WE NEED MORE DATA FROM CITIZEN SCIENTISTS LIKE YOU.

AND IF YOU WANT MORE INFORMATION ON THIS, GO TO OUR PBS NATURE FACEBOOK PAGE AND ALSO CHECK OUT SCISTARTER ON OUR WEBSITE AT PBS.ORG.

AND ONE MORE THING.

HOW APPROPRIATE IS THIS FOR OUR FINAL NIGHT OF THESE FLOWERS ARE CALLED FAREWELL TO SPRING, BECAUSE THEY'RE ONE OF THE LAST ONES TO BLOOM IN SPRING.

I JUST LOVE IT.

BACK TO YOU GUYS.

Chang: WE THINK IT'S FAR TOO EARLY TO SAY FAREWELL TO SPRING, BUT THANKS SO MUCH, PHIL.

WE'VE BEEN ALL CAUGHT UP IN THE ENTHUSIASM OF THE CITIZEN SCIENCE.

FOR THE PAST TWO NIGHTS, WE'VE BEEN CLOSELY FOLLOWING THIS LITTLE NEST.

IT'S A RED-TAILED HAWK FAMILY COURTESY OF THE CORNELL UNIVERSITY BIRD CAM.

ON THE FIR... OH, THERE'S TWO CHICKS NOW.

BUT ON THE FIRST NIGHT, WE WATCHED ONE CHICK ACTUALLY BEING BORN, BECOMING A HATCHLING.

THAT'S RIGHT.

AND NOW THAT FAMILY HAS GROWN BY ONE.

AND YOU'LL SEE A THIRD EGG IN THERE THAT'S STILL WAITING TO HATCH.

ER BUT ALREADY THE MOTHER IS FEEDING THOSE TWO HUNGRY LITTLE CHICKS WITH SOME TASTY-LOOKING PIECES OF SQUIRREL, I THINK.

FABULOUS.

AND THEY'LL KEEP THIS UP FOR SIX WEEKS OR SO UNTIL THOSE CHICKS ARE LARGE ENOUGH TO FLEDGE.

Chang: AND YOU TAUGHT ME THAT THEY'RE CALLED FLEDGLINGS ONCE THEY'RE READY TO FLY THE NEST, WHICH, I HAVE A TEENAGER, SO I KNOW WHAT THAT MEANS NOW.

LI AND YOU WERE SAYING THAT HAWKS ARE AT THE TOP OF THE FOOD CHAIN, RIGHT?

THAT'S RIGHT.

ANS NOW.

AND AS WE SAID EARLIER, EVEN APEX PREDATORS HAVE TO ADJUST FO THEIR HABITS WHEN CONDITIONS CHANGE.

Chang: AND ONE OF OUR RESEARCHERS IN MINNESOTA IN THOSE WOODS ARE DOING THEIR BEST TO FIND THOSE... ANOTHER APEX PREDATOR, THE NEW... THE WOLF PUPS.

LET'S CHECK IN AGAIN WITH WILDLIFE EXPERT TOM GABLE AND HIS TEAM.

SO, WE FIRST FOUND THIS DEN FROM A WOLF THAT HAD A GPS COLLAR.

AND WE FOUND OUT A BUNCH OF DIFFERENT LOCATIONS AROUND HERE, AND SO WE CAME IN TO LOOK FOR IT.

AND AS WE WERE LOOKING FOR THE DEN, WE WERE LOOKING FOR ANY SORT OF HOLE OR CREVICE WHERE THE WOLVES COULD ACTUALLY KEEP THEIR PUPS.

THIS WAS ACTUALLY A REALLY NEAT DEN BECAUSE IT'S UNDERNEATH A BIRCH LOG.

AND, SO, IT'S A HUGE CAVERN THAT'S TUCKED UNDERNEATH THIS BIRCH LOG THAT ALL THE PUPS CAN GET IN.

SO IT REALLY MAKES A GREAT PLACE TO HAVE A DEN.

AND THAT'S PROBABLY WHY THEY'VE USED THIS DEN MULTIPLE YEARS IN A ROW, BECAUSE OF HOW NICE OF A SPOT IT ACTUALLY IS.

OKAY, WELL, THERE AREN'T ANY PUPS IN THERE.

THE DEN HAS A LOT OF WATER.

SO, WHILE THERE'S NO WOLVES IN THIS DEN, IT'S VERY LIKELY THAT ONE OF THE WOLVES, PROBABLY THE FEMALE, CAME BY TO SEE IF THIS WAS ACTUALLY A GOOD SPOT TO HAVE PUPS.

THERE IS SOME WOLF HAIR ON THE ENTRANCE OF THE DEN, SUGGESTING THAT AT LEAST ONE WOLF CAME IN, MAYBE SCOPED IT OUT, AND REALIZED IT WASN'T A GOOD SPOT TO HAVE PUPS.

AND SO WE'RE GONNA CHECK OUT THE FOOTAGE ON THESE CAMERAS AND SEE IF WE ACTUALLY GOT LUCKY.

SE AND NOW WE'LL SEE WHAT HAPPENS.

WE'RE SEEING SQUIRRELS.

DEER.

A DEER.

AND THERE'S STILL TONS OF SNOW, EVEN IN MARCH.

AND IT STARTS-- OH, THERE'S A WOLF COMING IN.

OH, YEAH.

OH, COOL.

COLLARED WOLF.

COLLARED WOLF.

WOW.

THAT IS AWESOME.

DEFINITELY SNIFFING IT.

OH, AND THERE'S ANOTHER ONE.

ANOTHER COLLAR.

OH, LOOK. DOMINANCE.

THEY'RE, LIKE...

YEAH, YEAH, THEY'RE EXCITED ABOUT THE SPOT.

THAT ONE WENT INTO THE DEN.

ALL THE WAY IN.

JUST GOT OVER THE EDGE.

WOW.

FANTASTIC.

SO THAT'S PROBABLY WHY WE HAVE THE HAIR AROUND THE DEN THERE.

HOLY COW.

YEAH, THAT'S SWEET.

SO THEY'RE CLEARLY CHECKING IT OUT BUT DECIDED NOT TO USE IT FOR WHATEVER REASON.

OH.

WOW.

OH!

THEY'RE TAGGED AGAIN.

HOLY COW.

IT'S-IT'S RIGHT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE DAY.

IT'S LIKE-- SO THEY KEPT COMING BACK TO THE DEN, CHECKING OUT OVER A COUPLE-DAY PERIOD.

AND IT PROBABLY JUST WAS NEVER SUITABLE FOR THEM.

OH, WOW, THAT IS SUPER COOL.

OOH, WHO'S THAT?

OH

I BET THAT'S THE-- I BET THAT'S THE BREEDING FEMALE.

UNDOUBTEDLY.

YEAH, SHE LOOKS-- SHE'S BIG.

THAT'S-- GOT A BIG BELLY THERE.

JUST, LIKE, SCOPING IT OUT.

THAT'S DEFINITELY THE FEMALE.

THAT'S GOT TO BE HER.

THAT'S GOT A HUGE BELLY.

OH, SHE GOES IN.

ON THE 11th.

OH, SHE DOES GO INTO THE DEN.

HUH.

THAT...

SO CLOSE.

RIGHT AT THE CAMERA.

THAT IS SO COOL.

DOESN'T CARE AT ALL.

JUST, LIKE, SITTING IN THE DEN, WITH ITS HEAD JUST POKED OUT OF THE HOLE.

UST POKED OUT OF

THINKING ABOUT IT.

YEAH.

THEY WERE SO CLOSE TO USING THIS DEN.

IT LOOKS LIKE THE 11th WAS REALLY THE LAST TIME THAT WE WERE ABLE TO SEE THEM.

HOLD ON.

13th.

OH, 13th.

ANOTHER ONE ON THE 14th COMING OUT OF THE DEN.

I MEAN, THERE ARE SO MANY WOLF VIDEOS HERE.

18th?

HOLD ON.

OH.

YEAH.

NO.

YEAH, THAT'S THE 18th.

YEAH.

OOH, LOOK AT HER SHAKE.

YEAH, SHE SHOOK OFF ALL THE... HER BELLY'S JUST TOTALLY SOAKED.

MAYBE-MAYBE WE NEED TO TAKE ANOTHER PEEK IN THERE.

I CAN'T...

THERE'S A PUP!

WE'RE MOVING PUPS.

OH! THAT... . THEY'RE MOVING PUPS.

THEY WERE HERE.

THEY WERE MELTED OUT.

THEY WERE HERE.

LOOK AT THAT.

NO WAY.

THAT'S A LITTLE PUP.

JUST TAKING-- THOSE THINGS ARE TINY.

SO TINY.

LOOK AT THAT.

IT WAS AN ACTIVE DEN.

SO THERE WERE PUPS HERE.

OH, SHE COMES BACK IN.

START COUNTING.

THAT WAS ONE.

YEAH.

YEAH.

WOW!

LOOK AT THAT.

IT APPEARS THAT THE DEN WAS JUST FULL OF WATER, AND SO THE PUPS WERE SOAKED.

G] PROBABLY GETTING HYPOTHERMIC OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT.

THE FEMALE HAD TO GET 'EM OUT RIGHT AWAY.

AND SO THAT'S WHAT WE SEE ON THE VIDEO FOOTAGE HERE.

THIRD ONE.

THREE.

AY

YEAH, THESE ARE ALL, LIKE-- JUST, LIKE, TWO MINUTES APART.

FOUR.

LISTEN TO 'EM SQUEAK.

YEAH, THEY'RE REALLY UPSET.

YEAH, SO THAT SPRING THAW MUST HAVE JUST MELTED AND FILLED THE DEN.

FIVE.

WOW, YEAH, THAT'S...

WHAT A RESCUE.

THAT IS ABSOLUTELY AMAZING.

THAT'S AWESOME.

THEY'RE STILL COMING.

SIX.

VERY URGENT NOW.

YEAH.

SEVEN.

MOVE THE LAST ONE.

SEVEN OF 'EM.

NOW SHE'S DONE.

YEAH.

THAT IS SO COOL.

I CAN'T BELIEVE WE GOT THAT.

WOW.

THEY WERE HERE ON 8:58 P.M.

LAST NIGHT.

AND WE CAME IN AT 9:00, SO WE'RE 12 HOURS BEHIND THEM.

UM, SO THEY MOVED, UH... S

BEING HERE.

WHICH IS SUPER, SUPER EXCITING.

SO THAT'S-THAT'S IT.

WOW.

Chang: 'WOW' IS RIGHT.

THAT SENSE OF WONDER IS ALL AROUND.

LOOK AT THIS.

IT'S THE BEAUTIFUL YOSEMITE FALLS.

IT'S THE SNOWMELT JUST NORTH OF HERE, IN THE SIERRA NEVADA MOUNTAINS.

ST NORTH OF GLORIOUS.

S IT'S ENERGY IN MOTION.

IT'S A DAZZLING DISPLAY.

'S AND PREDATORS ARE IN MOTION, TOO, ACROSS THE COUNTRY, ADJUSTING TO CHANGES IN THEIR , ENVIRONMENT, LIKE THOSE BOBCATS UP IN THE COASTAL GRASSLANDS OF MARIN COUNTY THAT WE SAW EARLIER.

AND, OF COURSE, TRACKING THESE ELUSIVE PREDATORS IS WILDLIFE CINEMATOGRAPHER FILIPE AT DeANDRADE.

FILIPE, TELL US WHAT YOU'RE SEEING NOW.

JUJU, TEAM BOBCAT IS STILL ON THE MISSION FOR A WILD BOBCAT.

IF ANYBODY IS GONNA SPOT A WILD BOBCAT, IT'S GONNA BE 'HAWK EYES' DANIEL DIETRICH BEHIND ME.

I SWEAR, THIS GUY COULD SEE AT LEAST A MILE AWAY.

SW SO, THE SITUATION RIGHT NOW, IF YOU GUYS CAN SEE, WHAT I'M LOOKING AT RIGHT HERE IN FRONT OF ME IS THE VASTNESS OF THESE CALIFORNIA HILLS.

TH AND WHAT YOU'RE LOOKING FOR IS ABOUT A 30-POUND CAT.

LIKE I SAID, COMPLETELY OUT IN THE OPEN.

AND THE INTERESTING THING, THE REASON WHY THEY'RE HERE AND WHAT MAKES THIS PLACE SO SPECTACULAR TO SEE THE BOBCATS IS THEY'RE ATTRACTED HERE BY THEIR PREY.

LIKE I SAID EARLIER, THE PREY IS DIURNAL.

S THEREFORE, THE BOBCATS ARE DIURNAL.

THEY'RE LOOKING FOR GOPHERS.

THEY'RE LOOKING FOR RATS.

THEY'RE LOOKING FOR MICE.

AND WHEN THEY FINALLY COME UP ON SOMETHING, BECAUSE THEIR PADS ARE SO SENSITIVE, THEY'RE GONNA LOCK ON TO IT, POP UP, AND COME RIGHT DOWN.

TAKE A LOOK AT WHAT WE GOT EARLIER.

WE ARE ON ANOTHER BOBCAT RIGHT NOW.

THIS IS A MALE, AND HE IS 100% ON THE HUNT RIGHT NOW.

HE'S ON A MISSION.

OH, THERE WE GO.

HE GOT IT, HE GOT IT, HE GOT IT.

HE'S GONNA EAT VERY QUICKLY, BECAUSE THE LIKELIHOOD, THE POSSIBILITY THAT A COYOTE OR SOMETHING AND-- IF IT'S IN THE AREA, IT'S DEFINITELY GONNA DRAW A LOT OF ATTENTION.

HE'S STARING RIGHT BACK AT US.

THE ONLY REASON HE DOESN'T SEE US AS A THREAT IS BECAUSE WE'RE NOT MAKING ANY NOISE.

WE'RE A GOOD DISTANCE AWAY.

WOW.

FINISHING UP THE PREY.

THAT IS WHAT THE PREDATOR-PREY CONFLICT IS ALL ABOUT, KEEPING THE BALANCE, MAKING SURE THAT THIS ECOSYSTEM IS HEALTHY.

THAT'S WHY YOU NEED EVERY ANIMAL DOING THEIR PART OUT HERE.

G IT DOESN'T GET ANY BETTER THAN A WILD BOBCAT IN THE CALIFORNIA MOUNTAINS MAKING A KILL, KEEPING THE BALANCE.

COULDN'T BE MORE STOKED TO BRING THAT TO YOU GUYS.

ALL RIGHT, YOU GUYS.

WELL, YOU ASKED FOR SOME

ALL RIGHT, YOU GUYS.

FACEBOOK QUESTIONS.

ASK NO, I ASKED FOR FACEBOOK QUESTIONS, AND YOU GAVE ME SOME REALLY GOOD QUESTIONS.

R QUESTIONS, AND YOU AND I'VE GOT 'EM RIGHT HERE.

SO, MY FAVORITES RIGHT NOW.

TITI SAID, 'WHAT CAN WE DO TO PROTECT BEES IN OUR AREA?'

WELL, A LOT OF THAT HAS TO DO WITH THE PLANTS THAT YOU PUT IN YOUR GARDEN.

BEE-FRIENDLY NATIVE PLANTS.

I WANT TO SEE, UM, YOU KNOW, O LOTS OF FLOWERS.

GOOD BUNCHES OF FLOWERS ARE REALLY HELPFUL, TOO.

AND DON'T USE PESTICIDES.

TO BE HONEST, IF YOUR... IF YOUR GARDEN'S DYNAMIC ENOUGH, YOU GA DON'T NEED IT, 'CAUSE THE PESTS GET TAKEN CARE OF JUST BY NATURE ITSELF.

LINDSEY ASKS, 'WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS?'

WELL, THEY'RE BOTH IN THE ORDER LEPIDOPTERA.

AND, ESSENTIALLY, BUTTERFLIES-- YOU GOT TO LOOK AT THEIR ANTENNAE.

'CAUSE THEY HAVE A STRAIGHT ANTENNA WITH A CLUB OR A HOOK AT THE END, WHEREAS MOTHS HAVE TE JUST A STRAIGHT ANTENNA OR A FEATHER AT THE END.

SO IT'S ALL ABOUT THEIR ANTENNAE FEELERS.

THOSE WERE AMAZING QUESTIONS, IT'S AL GUYS.

BACK TO YOU IN THE STUDIO.

Chang: WELL, THANKS SO MUCH, PHIL.

I GUESS WE COULDN'T STUMP HIM ON FACEBOOK QUESTIONS.

NO.

Chang: NOR YOU, THOR.

YOU'RE A WALKING ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SCIENCE, I MUST SAY.

AND, ONCE AGAIN, MOTHER NATURE HAS GIVEN US A SPLENDID EVENING OUT HERE IN THE SIERRA NEVADA MOUNTAINS.

OF COURSE, BEHIND ME, YOU CAN STILL SEE THE GRANITE.

YOU CAN STILL SEE MORO ROCK, WHICH IS A TOURIST DESTINATION.

YOU CAN SE IT'S BEEN AN EXTRAORDINARY THREE-NIGHT SCIENTIFIC VOYAGE INTO SPRING HERE AT SEQUOIA NATIONAL PARK, HOME OF THE GIANT SEQUOIAS.

AND, OF COURSE, WE ENCOURAGE YOU TO LOOK AT THE NATURAL WORLD WHERE YOU ARE.

HOPEFULLY, YOU'LL BE INSPIRED TO TAKE PART IN CITIZEN SCIENCE PROGRAMS.

AFTER ALL, WE'RE ALL CITIZENS OF THE EARTH.

SO, ON BEHALF OF PHIL TORRES AND BIOLOGIST THOR HANSON, WHO'S IN-- PROVIDED SO MANY SCIENTIFIC INSIGHTS, THANK YOU.

Y SCI

THANK YOU, JUJU.

IT'S BEEN A TERRIFIC JOURNEY.

Chang: AND TO ALL OF OUR TEAMS OF RESEARCHERS AND SCIENTISTS AND CREWS ACROSS THE COUNTRY, THANKS FOR JOINING US HERE FOR 'AMERICAN SPRING LIVE.'

A GO OUT AND ENJOY SPRING.

THANKS FOR JOINING US.

WE WANT YOU TO PARTICIPATE IN THIS BROADCAST.

SO HEAD TO THE PBS NATURE FACEBOOK PAGE TO ASK US QUESTIONS, SHARE SPRING STORIES, AND POST YOUR PHOTOS AND VIDEO.

YOU CAN ALSO VISIT NATURE'S AN WEBSITE TO LEARN HOW TO BECOME A S CITIZEN SCIENTIST, PLAY A PART, AND MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN THE PURSUIT OF CRITICAL DATA ABOUT SPRING.

THIS IS HOW WE GET THE BIG PICTURE OF WHAT'S HAPPENING IN OUR WORLD.

Captioning sponsored by WNET Captioned by Media Access Group at WGBH access.wgbh.org

FINDING ANY MOOSE, LET ALONE ONE WITH A NEWBORN, IN THIS TERRAIN IS A DAUNTING CHALLENGE.

I GOT LUCKY.

THIS IS GONNA BE A CHALLENGING 12 MONTHS, BUT I'M REALLY EXCITED TO SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SURVIVES ITS FIRST YEAR IN THE CANADIAN ROCKIES.

MOOSE POPULATIONS ARE DECLINING, AND SCIENTISTS ARE RACING TO DISCOVER WHY.

ANY CALF BORN NOW REALLY HAS THE DECK STACKED AGAINST HIM.