In the 1970s, the pollock industry in Alaska expanded to become the largest fishery in the world. Around the same time, sea lions began to disappear. Despite other possible factors — such as pollution, humpback whales depleting their main food sources, or predation by killer whales — many people thought the fisheries had been caught with the smoking gun. After a July 2000 ruling by the Federal District Court, the National Marine Fisheries Service announced that it would close all fishing of pollock, Pacific cod, and Atka mackerel in a large part of the sea lions’ critical habitat. But what were the costs of this decision? And is the solution to disappearing Steller’s sea lions really that simple?