The Watch List: The medication of foster children

Nearly one in every 10 American children is diagnosed with a mental health disorder. Often the treatment prescribed is medication, and often the medication is heavy-duty — so-called antipsychotic drugs.

In this report, you’ll see that foster care children are prescribed drugs at a rate much greater than that of other kids. Concern over their well-being — not to mention the amount it costs to treat them — has prompted the Government Accountability Office to investigate potentially abusive prescribing practices in America’s state foster care systems. The GAO findings are expected to come out later this year.

Need to Know correspondent Shoshana Guy went to Texas to investigate overuse of psychotropic drugs in foster children, as well as that state’s efforts at reform.

 
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Comments

  • Nancyleecanfield

    As a child, I lived in five different foster homes. Fortunately, I was never given drugs, but the experiences in foster care left me with the feeling that I was just a way for the care providers to earn extra money and get farm help at the same time.I have included my foster care experiences in my recently published memoir, “A Rose for My Mother.” Nancy Lee Canfield

  • A Archibald

    As a counselor providing help through a community mental health center, we work with children in the foster care system. I appreciate the exposure of the practice of using medications “off label.” But, some things I did not hear: 1. I didn’t hear a mention that the “atypicals” are considered an advance because of the great reduction in side effects. 2. Characterizing medication as more expensive than therapy (for wraparound services, we may spend 10 to 12 hours per week providing counseling service in addition to medication therapies) is likely true in some cases, but we require all youth who receive medication therapies to also receive counseling services. Most children in out of home placement who receive counseling do not take medication. 3. Major risks for aggressive children in foster care are failed foster placements and school suspensions and expulsions. In our city, the public school system drop out rate is well over 50% for the general population; for foster kids, the rate is higher. Failed placements and school expulsions are high stakes episodes for these young people and their futures. That does not excuse misdiagnosis or over-medication, but withholding potentially beneficial treatment due to overcaution is not exactly “first, do no harm.” 4. Many children under age 11 or 12 lack the cognitive development to make extensive use of insight therapies when their aggressive impulses come from a less than conscious part of themselves. They can use behavioral techniques, but lack the capacity to metaphorically step back and take a look at themselves. 5. As for the financial angle, Medicaid reimbursement for services is not highly profitable because of the highly regulated environment that requires layers of physicians, nurses, billing departments to meet all the requirements. —– Those of us who provide these services should be challenged to always do better but I think the challenge is better focused on accurately measuring the efficacy of our efforts and learning from the findings rather than villifying all use of atypical psychotropics – I have seen these medications transform lives!

  • Pbmomma

    Also nowadays there is a lot of “diagnosis by drug” where a guess is made and the drug prescribed, and if it eliminates the symptom(s) then that is assumed to be the correct diagnosis. If not the next favorite drug is tried and on down a line. Then additional drugs are often prescribed to control the medication side effects.

    I literally know of a foster child case where she was given a medication because other kids were picking on her too much.

    To the counselor who posted – “potentially” helpful medications sounds prematurely issued. This is not about every individual child but the statistics and misuse. These children often have no one to stick up for them.

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Christopher-House/100000810305896 Christopher House

    The first thing I want you to know is, I did not write the comment I reprint below from the website of The Washington Post. I did not make up some fictitious foster parent in an effort to make foster parents look bad. As far as I know the post is genuine and the person who wrote it is real.

    I reprint her comment below because it’s hard to imagine anything that better illustrates the perils of paying foster parents too much, as Washington D.C. does, or giving foster parents in much of the rest of the country giant pay raises, as is proposed by the group that so arrogantly calls itself Children’s Rights (CR). I certainly don’t believe that this foster parent is typical. But this is the kind of foster parent you are more likely to attract when you pay them the way CR proposes to do.

    First, a little background: The effort to close a budget gap in D.C. wound up pitting programs to help children stay out of foster care against programs to help children already in foster care.

    In particular, Roque Gerald, who runs the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency, tried to slash a program to help grandparents keep their children out of foster care. He argued that since the children were not, in fact, in the system and the grandparents had not been accused of child abuse, this wasn’t really a child abuse prevention program.

    Yes, that really was his reasoning. As I pointed out in an op ed column for the Post:

    If torturing logic were a war crime, that statement would get Gerald hauled before an international tribunal.
    Every prevention program serves children who have not been maltreated. Maltreatment is what the prevention programs are created to prevent. That’s why they’re called prevention programs. Gerald’s logic is like saying a rent subsidy program doesn’t prevent homelessness because all of the people getting the subsidies are living in apartments.
    The DC Council restored some of the cut – but at the expense of deeper cuts in help for children already in foster care.

    Neither cut was necessary. According to an independent monitor of a longstanding consent decree, CFSA warehouses far too many children in group homes and institutions, both the worst form of care and the most expensive.

    And DC throws amazing amounts of money at foster parents, paying them at, by far, the highest rate in the country. In fact, the rate is so high even CR couldn’t claim that DC foster parents weren’t getting enough.

    Keep in mind, CR wants foster parents paid not only for the basics but also for every toy, game, movie ticket and amusement park ride they buy for a foster child. CR admits that the $940 per month – tax free – it estimates DC pays for a teenage foster child is enough to cover all of this and more.

    But it wasn’t enough for “Bodymagicbykim.” That’s the name a former DC foster parent used in a comment on the Post website under my op ed column. Below you’ll find her comment, followed by my own response.

    As you read Ms. Bodymagic’s comment I would ask you to ponder just one question: If something happened to you and your child had to be placed in foster care, would you want that child placed with this foster parent?

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Christopher-House/100000810305896 Christopher House

    THE COMMENT FROM “BODYMAGICBYKIM”:

    For those who commented on DC foster/kinship care parents receiving too much for the monthly costs of these children. I wholeheartedly disagree. I myself was a foster parent of four teenage female siblings. That was not enough money.

    Please consider all of the projects these children are required to complete daily that require costly materials (i.e. assigned novels for book reports, magazines for collages, science projects, models of cells, one was even required to model a futuristic community). Please consider the number of leave requests the parents have to put in to get these children to doctor appointments, court hearings, CFSA family meetings, therapy, dentist appointments and include gas, car-maintenance and parking costs- the list goes on along with the hourly cost of leave at an over 6-figure salary.

    These children also needed clothing, shoes, coats (replacements for the aforementioned), hair appointments (minimum $40 per head, per bi-weekly appointment – can range up to $180 per appointment for braids), bedding, linens, necessities (sanitary napkins cost us loads of money), etc.

    Now, the food? If you have children, you are clear they’re always feeding friends. Try feeding four teenagers and one friend each daily – that’s about $1,200 per month right there. In raising productive citizens, you want to teach them how to budget and save – factor in allowance. Also, because these children had drivers’ licenses, factor in the increased cost of auto insurance on TEENAGERS.

    This doesn’t take into account high increases to utilities, property damage, birthdays, Christmas, graduations, back-to-school shopping, gifts for their friends’ birthdays, prom, summer camps at $150 minimum per week for the two too young to work, transportation and work-clothing costs for the two that could work, tutors, computer and related equipment, SAT prep class & test costs, drivers’ education class, college applications, college visits, extracurricular activity costs and supplies, vacations (or should I have left them at home while I traveled the world?? That would certainly be fair).

    I could go on for days. The point of the matter is that I (thankfully) wasn’t in it for the money, but I can assure you that I invested quite a bit out of my own pocket. The monthly cost was not enough, honestly, if I didn’t have a good salary of my own and factor in that of my husband’s.

    If I were a poor/middle-class fixed-income grandmother, we wouldn’t have survived. So, PLEASE before you make some farfetched statements like you have that effect our livelihoods, do your research by talking to the masses who have lived it. Leave the textbook, projections, forecasts based upon bad data alone. A PhD means little if you haven’t lived it! Speak to those with their MRS or MOM first – those are the letters that count most when talking about our children. I’m offended, but willing to share more.

    MY RESPONSE:

    OK, so let me get this straight Ms. bodymagic. You make a six-figure income, you “travel the world” on vacation, and you’re whining because the taxpayers of Washington D.C. supposedly did not pay you enough to cover the cost of your own foster children’s Christmas gifts and school assignments? You demand this money even if it means cutting help to impoverished grandparents raising their own grandchildren?
    At least I hope you never also ran around claiming that you treated your foster children “like my own.” And I hope the young people never found out that the thought of doing for them what any loving parent with a six-figure income does for her own children caused so much resentment on your part.
    The good news for you, Ms. bodymagic, is that the group that calls itself Children’s Rights completely agrees with you. They think you shouldn’t be expected to do any of this out of caring or, God forbid, love, but rather you should be reimbursed for every penny. The bad news is that they’ve calculated that DC already pays you more than enough for this – even for teenagers, for whom foster parents are paid even more than for younger children.
    It’s just that you wanted even more.
    And lest anyone think that all foster parents are like Ms. bodymagic, take a look at this op ed, from the kind of foster parent I think we’d all rather see in the system, someone who has indeed “lived it” and who got her MOM degree by majoring in compassion.
    __________________
    There’s much more at the Post website, including my exchange with Richard Barth, the Dean of the School of Social Work at the University of Maryland who was an advisor for CR’s foster parent pay report.

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Christopher-House/100000810305896 Christopher House

    Another LA foster care story ignored by the LA Times
    Sadly, we must begin the New Year picking up where we left off – with still another story of child welfare tragedy ignored by the Los Angeles Times and possibly caused in part by the Los Angeles Times.

    On August 20, 2009 I was in Los Angeles, holding a news conference along with the excellent local grassroots group DCFS-Give Us Back Our Children. We warned that bad journalism, (particularly the bad journalism of Garrett Therolf, the embattled reporter for the beleaguered Los Angeles Times) was likely to set off a foster-care panic – a sharp sudden surge in children needlessly taken from their parents. (The material we released that day is on our website here).

    As we would confirm by filing our own California Public Records Act request, not only was there such a panic, one of the worst months of the panic was August, 2009, with the number of children taken from their parents that month 20 percent higher than the same month the previous year.

    Even as we issued the warning, on August 20, 2009, a little boy named Eamon was becoming a likely victim of that panic.

    Pasadena Weekly told the story of Eamon, his sister, and their mother Mary O’Connor with rare insight and compassion last month. That story, and a heartbreaking follow-up, make clear that Eamon was born with three strikes against him. His mother is poor. She is, as the lawyer who handled an eviction case for her puts it, “a little odd” – but not in any way that indicated the slightest danger to her son. And strike three for Eamon was being born when caseworkers for the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services were especially paranoid about being scapegoated by Therolf for leaving a child in her or his own home and having something go wrong.

    FLUNKING THE ATTITUDE TEST

    Actually, make it four strikes. Ms. O’Connor flunked what a Los Angeles lawyer described to me decades ago as “the attitude test.” She didn’t know how to put on an act of groveling before DCFS workers, begging forgiveness (not that there is any evidence that there was anything for which she needed to be forgiven) and promising to jump through every hoop set before her. Instead, she fought back in ways even more likely to anger a judge and scare a DCFS worker.

    None of which changes one basic fact: There was no problem in Ms. O’Connor’s home that couldn’t have been solved with help to cope with the concrete problems of poverty and the kind of mental health care that affluent families easily can buy.

    There are other factors that may be at play here as well.

    It appears that Eamon was put on the adoption track very quickly – placed a middle-class couple of “UCLA graduates” who can’t wait to adopt the boy. California law may be the most draconian in the nation when it comes to allowing this, letting DCFS to rush to seek termination for infants much sooner than required by federal law. The alternative weekly in San Jose did a good story about this more than a decade ago.

    THE PERNICIOUS PRACTICE OF “CONCURRENT PLANNING”

    This case also illustrates the harm of a pernicious practice known as “concurrent planning,” in which child welfare agency workers supposedly do their very best to reunite a child with his birth parents while, at the very same time, placing the child with parents desperate to adopt. This is like placing before a small child a bowl of broccoli and a bowl of ice cream and trusting that he will eat them both.

    Similarly, middle class foster parents desperate to adopt a child are told: “now remember, your first job is to help work to reunite this family, but if by some chance you fail at that, then you get what you really want, a poor person’s child for your very own.” As one such parent in New Jersey once told The New York Times, in real life the “mantra” for such parents is: “I’m on a plane to South America if they think they’re getting this baby back.”

    This also may be an example of the one and only time that that the racism that pervades child welfare may work in reverse. Black families are more likely to be investigated, more likely to have cases substantiated and more likely to have children taken away than white families. But then Black children tend to stay in foster care longer.

    It’s a matter of supply and demand. White infants are very rare in foster care systems, especially large urban systems – and caseworkers know that this is the one time when families will be lining up to adopt.

    I’m not suggesting that DCFS is engaged in “baby-selling” or other similar allegations one sometimes hears. I’m not even suggesting that DCFS is doing it for the bounty the agency will receive from the federal government, somewhere between $4,000 and $12,000, if the adoption exceeds a baseline number set by a federal formula. (Funny, Garrett Therolf never writes about that financial incentive). Rather, I’m suggesting that human nature is at play, the common, albeit illegal “comparison shopping” that occurs when middle-class professionals have power over poor people – as in workers thinking “This baby is so cute. He’d be so much better off with this nice couple who are desperate for a child.”

    BIAS AGAINST EXTENDED FAMILIES

    What also may be at play is the way the bias against birth parents often extends to their extended families. I say that because there is another middle-class professional couple that stands ready to adopt Eamon: Mary O’Connor’s own parents. But they’ve been turned down. Nobody knows why (DCFS can get away with keeping all that secret). In addition to bias against birth parents’ families another possibility is simply the fact that the grandparents live in Illinois, and interstate placements are a huge hassle.

    As Celeste Fremon writes in discussing the case on WitnessLA today:

    while is no doubt true that the UCLA grads can give Eamon far more in the way of opportunities than Mary O’Connor likely ever can, let us hope we are not yet parceling out other people’s children on that basis.

    And now, as Pasadena Weekly explains, the same fate may befall Eamon’s sister. That’s partly because, as O’Connor acknowledges, she “panicked.” When parents panic the system may punish their children forever. When caseworkers panic and rush to tear apart families, the workers suffer no consequences at all. (Contrary to what workers claim, they are not “damned if they do and damned if they don’t.” When it comes to taking away children, they’re only damned if they don’t.)

    What is happening to Mary O’Connor and her children could have happened in any child welfare system at any time. But it was more likely to happen in Los Angeles County in August, 2009. No wonder the Los Angeles Times is ignoring the story. Actually, that’s just as well – were the Times news side to get interested, it would probably be only to trash Mary O’Connor for every mistake she’s ever made and rejoice over the loss of her children.

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Christopher-House/100000810305896 Christopher House

    The first thing I want you to know is, I did not write the comment I reprint below from the website of The Washington Post. I did not make up some fictitious foster parent in an effort to make foster parents look bad. As far as I know the post is genuine and the person who wrote it is real.

    I reprint her comment below because it’s hard to imagine anything that better illustrates the perils of paying foster parents too much, as Washington D.C. does, or giving foster parents in much of the rest of the country giant pay raises, as is proposed by the group that so arrogantly calls itself Children’s Rights (CR). I certainly don’t believe that this foster parent is typical. But this is the kind of foster parent you are more likely to attract when you pay them the way CR proposes to do.

    First, a little background: The effort to close a budget gap in D.C. wound up pitting programs to help children stay out of foster care against programs to help children already in foster care.

    In particular, Roque Gerald, who runs the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency, tried to slash a program to help grandparents keep their children out of foster care. He argued that since the children were not, in fact, in the system and the grandparents had not been accused of child abuse, this wasn’t really a child abuse prevention program.

    Yes, that really was his reasoning. As I pointed out in an op ed column for the Post:

    If torturing logic were a war crime, that statement would get Gerald hauled before an international tribunal.
    Every prevention program serves children who have not been maltreated. Maltreatment is what the prevention programs are created to prevent. That’s why they’re called prevention programs. Gerald’s logic is like saying a rent subsidy program doesn’t prevent homelessness because all of the people getting the subsidies are living in apartments.
    The DC Council restored some of the cut – but at the expense of deeper cuts in help for children already in foster care.

    Neither cut was necessary. According to an independent monitor of a longstanding consent decree, CFSA warehouses far too many children in group homes and institutions, both the worst form of care and the most expensive.

    And DC throws amazing amounts of money at foster parents, paying them at, by far, the highest rate in the country. In fact, the rate is so high even CR couldn’t claim that DC foster parents weren’t getting enough.

    Keep in mind, CR wants foster parents paid not only for the basics but also for every toy, game, movie ticket and amusement park ride they buy for a foster child. CR admits that the $940 per month – tax free – it estimates DC pays for a teenage foster child is enough to cover all of this and more.

    But it wasn’t enough for “Bodymagicbykim.” That’s the name a former DC foster parent used in a comment on the Post website under my op ed column. Below you’ll find her comment, followed by my own response.

    - lets see in the nation there are over 700,000 CHILDREN A YEAR on average in foster care, of those 700,000 NEARLY a hundred a day are raped , molested, or killed by the foster care system people. NCCPR DID A STUDY That stated that children are 11 time more likely to be harmed in the system then in the home where it is only 5 times as likely < that an abusive home>
    IN Texas ALONG OVER 3000 children have died in the Texas foster care system sense 2004
    and as of 2003 100 children where poisoned from overdose, over 100 RAPED , 160 PREGNANT! OH AND 48 CHILDREN HAD DIED IN Texas FOSTER CARE OS OF THAT YEAR 2004!
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5B5Enu3NLqk&feature=related
    SEE WHAT REAL CHILDREN HAVE TO SAY ABOUT CPS

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Christopher-House/100000810305896 Christopher House
  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Christopher-House/100000810305896 Christopher House

    http://www.nccprblog.org/2010/10/supreme-court-will-decide-if-childrens.html

    Supreme Court will decide if “children’s rights” include the Constitution’s #4
    OR TO PUT IT ANOTHER WAY: DOES A NINE-YEAR-OLD GIRL HAVE AS MUCH CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTION AS TIMOTHY McVEIGH?

    The U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to hear an appeal by Oregon’s Department of Human Services (DHS) of a ruling by the 9th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals declaring that “children’s rights” include the right to be free from unreasonable search and seizure.

    The Court of Appeals also ruled that when a little girl is being stripsearched and having her genitals photographed by a total stranger, she also has a right to have her mother present to comfort her. DHS doesn’t like that, either.

    So here’s what this case really is about: Does a child have a right to be free from traumatic interrogations by total strangers when there is so little justification that a child welfare agency can’t even get a warrant? Do children have a right to be free from weeks of needless foster care when a caseworker may have lied to obtain the right to take the children away? (More on that below.) And does a young child at least have the right to have her mother present during an extremely traumatic medical exam?

    DHS thinks the answer to all of these questions should be “no.” You can bet the overwhelming majority of child protective services agencies feel the same way. Which means DHS and its counterparts really are seeking the the right to inflict nearly unlimited state-sanctioned child abuse.

    Indirectly, the case raises one more issue: Almost all of the questions in dispute in this case could have been quickly and easily resolved if only agencies like DHS were required to tape record all interviews in child protective services investigations – I don’t mean elaborate videotaping, a simple microcassette tape recorder (or digital equivalent) would be enough.

    A RULING FOR CHILDREN’S RIGHTS

    The full opinion from the Court of Appeals in the case, now called Camreta v. Greene, is well worth reading, if only because, right at the outset, the court refuses to be suckered by the party line child protective services agencies use whenever they want to trample on civil liberties: The one that says: If you support civil liberties you’re putting parents rights ahead of children’s rights – only if you trample on those liberties are you somehow standing up for “children’s rights.”

    The Court of Appeals wasn’t fooled. On the contrary, the court recognized that Fourth Amendment (and Fourteenth Amendment) rights are a vital protection for the children themselves.

    Citing a law review article on the topic, the decision notes that:

    Of the 3.6 million investigations conducted by state and local agencies in 2006, only about a quarter concluded that the children were indeed victims of abuse. … This discrepancy creates the risk that “in the name of saving children from the harm that their parents and guardians are thought to pose, states ultimately cause more harm to many more children than they ever help.”

    In this case, the family alleges that a DHS caseworker, accompanied by an armed deputy sheriff, went to a child’s school, interrogated the nine-year-old for two hours and badgered her into accusing her father of sexual abuse. The girl claims she finally gave in to get the interview over with. The caseworker denies this, saying the interrogation lasted one hour and the statements were made freely. Too bad there’s no tape recording so we’d know one way or the other.

    ECHOES OF McMARTIN

    If these allegations are true, then the tactics are frighteningly similar to the widespread badgering of children during the wave of hysteria over alleged “mass molestation” at day care centers which swept through the country during the 1980s; the McMartin Preschool being the most notorious case. Nearly every conviction in these cases ultimately was overturned – often because tape recordings revealed how children had been badgered and coerced. (Sadly, with the passage of time, those abuses are being forgotten and, in some cases, starting to be repeated.)

    In the Oregon case, the family alleges that the illegal, warrantless interrogation set off a cascade of other errors, though it is not clear if the Supreme Court will be reviewing those as well. [UPDATE: The Supreme Court will review only the issues surrounding the initial interrogation of the child. That's good news - it means the Court of Appeals' excellent ruling on the subsequent issues discussed below is not being challenged. Now the question is whether child welfare agencies in Oregon, California and the other western states where the ruling is binding will, in fact, obey the law.]

    ●After the interviews, the caseworker went to the mother and said she had to kick Dad out of the house during the investigation or he’d take away the children. Mom says she told the caseworker this would be difficult for her but she’d do it. The caseworker went to court and claimed Mom said exactly the opposite. It appears somebody lied – and once again there is no tape recording.

    ●Then the caseworker ordered the nine-year-old and her sister to undergo sexual abuse examinations at a place called the KIDS Intervention & Diagnostic Service Center. In other words, the children were stripsearched, had their genitals photographed and so on.

    Mom wanted to be with the children to comfort them. But, in what the family alleges was a violation of the mother’s – and the children’s – Fourteenth Amendment rights, the caseworker banned mom not only from the room, but from the entire building. (On this, it appears, there is no dispute.)

    In an affidavit, the child says:

    “I wish my mom could have been there. I felt very scared and alone . . . . [T]hey looked all over my body, and it was very uncomfortable.”

    And, indeed, the 9th Circuit, at least, has recognized as much. Citing a previous decision by the same court, this decision declares that:

    “children have a … right to the love, comfort, and reassurance of their parents while they are undergoing medical procedures, including examinations — particularly those … that are invasive or upsetting. The interest in family association is particularly compelling at such times, in part because of the possibility that a need to make medical decisions will arise, and in part because of the family’s right to be together during such difficult and often traumatic events.”

    The KIDS Center assessments involved the visual inspection and photographing of the children’s genitals. This process could certainly be emotionally traumatic to a young girl. …The children’s right to their mother’s comfort and their mother’s right to provide such comfort were thus at their apex. [Emphasis added.]

    Ultimately the KIDS center said it “could not determine” if the children had been abused. (Some “experts” have a policy of never saying there was not abuse, instead declaring either there was abuse or it’s undetermined; I don’t know if the KIDS Center has such a policy.) After about three weeks of foster care, the children were returned home.

    It is not clear where the father was then or now. The decision notes that he accepted a plea deal in connection with alleged sexual abuse of another child. (He maintained his innocence, but acknowledged there was enough evidence such that a judge or jury could convict).

    The KIDS Center report also said they worried that the nine-year-old might have recanted her claims “in an attempt to expedite her return home.”

    If so, then that, too, is DHS’ fault. The agency undermined its own investigation by removing the children. Had they simply acted to expel the alleged abuser from the home, and never placed the child in foster care, then the child might have been more willing to “disclose” abuse, if indeed there was any.

    THE McVEIGH STANDARD

    You can bet that DHS and its allies will pull out all the stops in trying to scare the Supreme Court into overturning this ruling. They will try to paint a picture of investigators hamstrung by supposedly having to have alleged abusers in the room when children are interviewed or having to get their permission to interview a child.

    Neither is true.

    The court ruled only that DHS is subject to the same limits imposed on police when they are hunting down a child murderer. – like, say, Timothy McVeigh, the terrorist who blew up the federal building in Oklahoma City.

    In the process, he blew up a day care center, killing 15 children; four more died elsewhere in the building. In order to track down, capture and develop evidence needed to convict McVeigh, the FBI needed to search a car he used, his father’s home and his sister’s home. In every case, they did what the Constitution requires – they got a warrant first. (And, by the way, this isn’t the only time the government obeyed the Fourth Amendment even in its pursuit of terrorists.)

    So what the U.S. Supreme Court really will be deciding in this case is whether a young child who might be traumatized by an interrogation, stripsearched and undergo an even more traumatic medical examination has as much protection under the U.S. Constitution as did Timothy McVeigh.

    If the Supreme Court says yes, child welfare agencies still will have the right to interview children out of sight of the parents and without getting their permission. All they have to do is call up a judge and explain why there is “probable cause” that the child has been harmed or is at risk. They don’t have to wait for the parents to mount a defense – they don’t even have to go to court in person. Indeed, the great irony in this case is, had DHS simply asked for a warrant, they almost certainly would have gotten one. In this case there was, indeed, enough reason to suspect abuse to warrant questioning the child (though not badgering her, as she alleges).

    Furthermore, there is always an exception under the Fourth Amendment for “exigent circumstances” – meaning, in child abuse situations, the child is in imminent danger, or the family might flee, for example, and there is no time to get a warrant.

    In this particular case, however, three days passed between the receipt of the report and DHS showing up to interview the child – so it would appear the circumstances were not “exigent.”

    Had DHS simply agreed to abide by the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments, it could have taken the Oregon taxpayer money it is spending litigating this case all the way to the Supreme Court and spent it on something more useful. I’m sure the legal fees would more than equal the cost of, say, a cheap little tape recorder for every DHS caseworker.

    In short, there is nothing in the Fourth Amendment of the Fourteenth Amendment that stops DHS and its counterparts around the country from protecting children – at most, these Constitutional protections may curb DHS’ power to traumatize the children it is supposed to protect.

    UPDATE: In the days since this first was posted, the family victimized by Oregon DHS has retained NCCPR’s volunteer Vice President, Carolyn Kubitschek, to argue their case before the Supreme Court.

  • HVAC

    Why are so many children in Foster Care being diagnosed as ADD or worse ADHD, simple, the foster care providers receive almost double the amount of money per child. Foster care providers go from Doctor to Doctor until they get a diagnosis needed to make more money.

    After receiving five hundred plus dollars per month for a few years what happens if the child is adopted or transferred, the Foster Care provide gives the child the prescribed medication. If the child had been given the prescribed dosages for as many years as indicated there would be permanent damage, instead of an adjustment or new treatment management.

    Doesn’t anyone ever read the reports of how well the child has been doing in the previous Foster Care? That’s because the medication was not being given, everyone there knew it was just for the extra income and not really needed.

    Until these children are more then a profit, until the system stops working like a Federally Funded puppy mill, nothing is going to change. Everyone is making to much money, the drug companies, the doctors, and the Foster Care Providers. Who cares about the welfare of the child, perhaps if we throw more monies at the problem someone will.

  • http://www.facebook.com/rogi.riverstone Rogi Riverstone

    STOP BIG PHRMA BEFORE IT STOPS ALL OF US!!!!!!!!!!

  • Dana

    Why did they have to go all the way to Texas to do this investigation? I sent them proof months ago that the same happens here in Oklahoma I even supplied them a list of names of Dr.’s who are prescribing drugs to these children. The drugs they prescribing to these children have been proven that they are very harmfull to children under 18. However they are given to them anyway all with the permission of DHS and they are paid by the state and the drug companies at the same time.

  • Tim

    Dana,

    As the father of 15 adopted kids out of America’s foster system, this stuff concerns me greatly. How do I connect with you to find out more of what you know?

    Tim

  • Guest

    Can anyone tell me where to find anything on the GAO’s research or plan to complete the study this year? I checked the GAO’s site, but had no luck, I may be using the wrong search method. – Thank you.

  • Duanesherry2

    There are other option for children – plenty of them, that are safer and more effective… options that are full of hope – recovery and wellness.

    Here are some links (non-commercial site) -

    http://discoverandrecover.wordpress.com

    Duane Sherry, M.S.

  • Freedog70

    Why are we demonizing the foster parent – we have some bad apples – yes – but why are we taking about how much money the parents get form the government when we should be talking about how much money the pharmaceutical company gets form the goverenment? shouldn’t we start looking there? They go into the millions and billions! Why are we arguing over a few hundred dollars when the big corporations get taxpayer money from subsidies in the millions and billions!

  • knowsfirsthand

    My husband and I watched this eposide and thought that for the first time someone reported on a matter that was worth while. We would love to have a transcript of the eposide for our records and also like to know more about GAO findings.
    We believe that that this should be national news, that everyone in America should know about this problem, that it is a problem in America that has to be stoped. As Americans we need to understand that we are talking about the welfare of children and put a stop to children becoming just dollar signs. Which is what they have become to government, (Fed. and State) foster parents, adoptive parents, Pharmisuiticals(sorry about spelling) Doctors, and lawyers.

    We adopted 2 children out of Foster care in Indiana. We believe that the DCS not only withheld information about our children that they outright lied to us about their history. We found out from school records that our son had been put on no less than 5 psychotic meds. before he was 4 years old. All while in foster care. None of which helped with the problems he was having, so they took him off of the meds. When we began having major problems with our son I asked several Doctors about the fact that I believed that these meds had harmed our son I was told a number of things including the fact that when they began giving these drugs to our son his brain was still developing and there was a good chance that they did harm him, but I was told to forget about it because there was nothing that we could do about the harm that may have happened to his developing brain. We kept having problems with our son and his behavior, he was diagonised with RAD (attachment disorder) The school kept insisting that he had ADD/ADHD, we had 3 different letters from 3 different doctors stating that he does not have ADD/ADHD. We proved that the school was breaking state laws by keeping our son in Special Education (another huge money maker) and they had to place him in the mainstream classroom. At anyrate we continued to have behavior problems with our son, including him running away several times and lying about us and our home. We ended up having our custody of him taken away by the State of Indiana. Within 2 weeks the DCS had a diagonises af ADD and we were made to sign consint papers to place him on a psyc. med, it did not matter that we had these 3 different Doctors that stated he didnt have ADD, we were told that if we did not sign the consint we would go to jail. That was over 2 and a half years ago, they have since placed him on 3 other psyc. meds withithout our consent, it now just takes a signature from the DCS. The heck with what we and the Doctors we took him to think. Our son now has more problems than ever. I could write a book on this subject. But the bottom line is that children are not expiermental rats, nore are they the almighty dollar sign that our government agiencys, and drug companies, and all the other scumb bags have turned them into. Our son has been ruined at the hands of those who claim they are there to protect him.

    We believe that all DCS offices should be closed and that these people along with the Doctors and drug companies should be held accountable for the harm that they have caused thousands of children.

  • Beckyb0224

    These agencies are something else, I know from first hand experience that they are after money and nothing else they could care less about the children. I had three children removed from my custody 11 years ago. They were seperated and placed up for adoption. The people who adopted my children were told lies about myself and my family. My oldest son, who is now 16, was diagnosed with ADHD, RAD, and PTSD while under the state of Ohio’s care. I am in contact with two of my three oldest children, and it really is sad who insugnifigant they are to the state. The adoptive mother of my oldest child decided that she did not want my son any longer and just gave him back to the state. He has been in and out of foster care, jails, and institutions since he was 10 years old, he just turned 16. They told my children that I didn’t want them, their father committed suicide 11 years ago and I made an attempt after I found him. That is why I lost my children. They have fed these children medication from the start. They keep my oldest son in Bellefaire special needs school and in a theraputic foster environment, and tell him on a regular basis that he is damaged. When are the children going to have rights, when are the states going to put the kids interest first. My oldest son, because of the state of Ohio, will never be able to be in the military, will never be able to have any type of security clearances…and why, for what? So the state could collect federal funding off of him. How is that protection, how is that providing a loving, stable environment. What type of people tell children that they are damaged, that they are unwanted and unloved. The devil runs these agency and it is high time that us people who pay these peoples salaries and fund these offices put a stop to it. They are hurting our children in the worst way and no one is stopping them, because everyone is afraid to speak up! No one will stand up to these people, out of the fear of going to jail? They put me in jail and I fought from inside. I have been fighting this corruption for 11 years. I haven’t gotten my children back but two of them are in my life and I get to talk to them and see them, and the third will be this I know because I have faith in God and in the end, the people who did this will pay. What ever is done in the dark will always come to light, this I have faith and confidence in! Everyone of us need to take a stand and stop these evil agnecies and these uncaring people from doing this to these defensless children. They have no one they can count on but us!! Stand together and be strong, God is on our side!!

  • Legalmed08

    I hate to tell you but you are not even partially right. The money given to foster parents is not close to covering the cost of caring for that child. I am a court appointed advocate for children and work with (not for) CPS and other agencies that work with foster children. The only thing that I agree with is that the children are given medications that they don’t always need, that many of the children are miss treated by the system. However, that being said, take into account that a lot of these children bring mistrust with them to the new foster home. What can be done? I don’t know. I do know that we as parents, or concerned people have the right to check into the foster care programs. So, if you really want to know what it cost, how it is run, how children are treated, become a foster parent, if you can past the test.

  • Legalmed08

    Really. Then maybe you should join CASA. In El Paso, Texas CASA agents are Court Appointed and have the right and authority to help that child. We are trained (besides love) how to help that child and have to appear in court on that childs behalf. Other CASA organizations are also strong in the support of children. What to do something, look into that and make sure you look at other organizations. Don’t just talk about helping, help.

  • Legalmed08

    Right on. I know children it has help, and children that will age out that it has not helped. But, since some of these children are under my court appointed care, I work with them in hopes that they learn and grow.
    I stand up and applaud anyone that works with these children. I know there are bad apples, but that God there are many more that are good and do the job that they signed on to do.

  • Mskaiser33

    This doctor need to be place on Medication. Let move him from all that he know and see how functional he become.

  • Moon AA

    @knowsfirsthand and others:
    Those of you who have experienced this sort of thing, please email me at moon.adoption.aje@xoxy.net . I would like to collect a bunch of information and testimonies and documents, and assemble a speech and a lecture. I want to help get the news and information out. Awareness is a big step in fixing a problem like this.

  • Godsplan4thechildren
  • Godsplan4thechildren

    BLAMING THE BRAIN
    The ‘Chemical Imbalance’ Fraud
    “There’s no biological imbalance. When people come to me and they say, ‘I have a biological
    imbalance,’ I say, ‘Show me your lab tests.’ There are no lab tests. So what’s the biochemical
    imbalance?” —Dr. Ron Leifer, New York psychiatrist.
    The cornerstone of psychiatry’s disease model today is the theory that a brain‐based,
    chemical imbalance causes mental illness. However, Dr. Mark Graff, Chair of Public
    Affairs of the American Psychiatric Association said that this theory was “probably
    drug industry derived.”1 His cohort, Dr. Steven Sharfstein, APA president, was forced
    under media pressure to admit that there is “no clean cut lab test” to determine a
    chemical imbalance in the brain.2
    Jonathan Leo, associate professor of anatomy at Western University of Health Sciences
    says, “If a psychiatrist says you have a shortage of a chemical, ask for a blood test and
    watch the psychiatrist’s reaction. The number of people who believe that scientists
    have proven that depressed people have low serotonin is a glorious testament to the
    power of marketing.”3
    Despite the billions of pharmaceutical company funding in support of the chemical
    imbalance theory, this psychiatric “disease” model is thoroughly debunked.
    Diabetes is a biochemical imbalance. However, “the definitive test and biochemical
    imbalance is a high blood sugar balance level. Treatment in severe cases is insulin
    injections, which restore sugar balance. The symptoms clear and retest shows the blood
    sugar is normal,” said Joseph Glenmullen of Harvard Medical School. “Nothing like a
    sodium imbalance or blood sugar imbalance exists for depression or any other
    psychiatric syndrome.”
    • Edward Drummond, M.D., Associate Medical Director at Seacoast Mental Health
    Center in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, informs us: “First, no biological etiology
    [cause] has been proven for any psychiatric disorder…in spite of decades of
    research.…So don’t accept the myth that we can make an ‘accurate
    diagnosis’.…Neither should you believe that your problems are due solely to a
    ‘chemical imbalance.’”4
    • Psychologist Bruce Levine, Ph.D., concurs: “Remember that no biochemical,
    neurological, or genetic markers have been found for attention deficit disorder,
    oppositional defiant disorder, depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, compulsive
    alcohol and drug abuse, overeating, gambling, or any other so‐called mental illness,
    disease, or disorder.”5
    • Charles E. Dean, M.D., says that people are “convinced that the origins of mental
    illnesses are to be found in biology, when, despite more than three decades of
    research, there still is no proof…The absences of any well‐defined physical causation
    is reflected in the absence of any laboratory tests for psychiatric diagnoses—much in
    contrast to diabetes and many other physical disorders.
    • “[T]here are no tests available for assessing the chemical status of a living person’s
    brain.” – Elliot Valenstein, Ph.D.6
    • Psychiatrist David Kaiser adds this: “Patients [have] been diagnosed with ‘chemical
    imbalances’ despite the fact that no test exists to support such a claim, and…there is
    no real conception of what a correct chemical balance would look like.”7
    • “Biopsychiatrists have created the myth that psychiatric ‘wonder’ drugs correct
    chemical imbalances. Yet there is no basis for this model because no chemical imbalance
    has ever been proven to be the basis of a mental illness,” wrote Ty C. Colbert, a clinical
    psychologist.
    The whole theory was invented to push drugs. “The way to sell drugs is to sell
    psychiatric illness,” says Carl Elliot, a bioethicist, University of Minnesota.8
    1 Interview of Dr. Mark Graff on CBS Studio 2, July 2005.
    2 “All Fired Up,” People magazine, 11 July 2005.
    3 Kelly Patricia O’Meara, Psyched Out: How Psychiatry Sells Mental Illness and Pushes Pills That Kill (Author
    House, 2006), pp. 47-48, citing Jonathan Leo paper, “The Biology of Mental Illness,” 2004.
    4 Edward Drummond, M.D., The Complete Guide to Psychiatric Drugs (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2000),
    pp. 15-16.
    5 Bruce D. Levine, Ph.D., Commonsense Rebellion: Debunking Psychiatry, Confronting Society, (Continuum, New
    York, 2001), p. 277.
    6 Elliot S. Valenstein, Ph.D., Blaming the Brain, (The Free Press, New York, 1998), p. 4.
    7 David Kaiser, M.D., “Commentary: Against Biologic Psychiatry,” Psychiatric Times, Dec. 1996.
    8 Shankar Vedantam, “Drug Ads Hyping Anxiety Make Some Uneasy,” The Washington Post, 16 July 2001.

  • Godsplan4thechildren

    BLAMING THE BRAIN
    The ‘Chemical Imbalance’ Fraud
    “There’s no biological imbalance. When people come to me and they say, ‘I have a biological
    imbalance,’ I say, ‘Show me your lab tests.’ There are no lab tests. So what’s the biochemical
    imbalance?” —Dr. Ron Leifer, New York psychiatrist.
    The cornerstone of psychiatry’s disease model today is the theory that a brain‐based,
    chemical imbalance causes mental illness. However, Dr. Mark Graff, Chair of Public
    Affairs of the American Psychiatric Association said that this theory was “probably
    drug industry derived.”1 His cohort, Dr. Steven Sharfstein, APA president, was forced
    under media pressure to admit that there is “no clean cut lab test” to determine a
    chemical imbalance in the brain.2
    Jonathan Leo, associate professor of anatomy at Western University of Health Sciences
    says, “If a psychiatrist says you have a shortage of a chemical, ask for a blood test and
    watch the psychiatrist’s reaction. The number of people who believe that scientists
    have proven that depressed people have low serotonin is a glorious testament to the
    power of marketing.”3
    Despite the billions of pharmaceutical company funding in support of the chemical
    imbalance theory, this psychiatric “disease” model is thoroughly debunked.
    Diabetes is a biochemical imbalance. However, “the definitive test and biochemical
    imbalance is a high blood sugar balance level. Treatment in severe cases is insulin
    injections, which restore sugar balance. The symptoms clear and retest shows the blood
    sugar is normal,” said Joseph Glenmullen of Harvard Medical School. “Nothing like a
    sodium imbalance or blood sugar imbalance exists for depression or any other
    psychiatric syndrome.”
    • Edward Drummond, M.D., Associate Medical Director at Seacoast Mental Health
    Center in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, informs us: “First, no biological etiology
    [cause] has been proven for any psychiatric disorder…in spite of decades of
    research.…So don’t accept the myth that we can make an ‘accurate
    diagnosis’.…Neither should you believe that your problems are due solely to a
    ‘chemical imbalance.’”4
    • Psychologist Bruce Levine, Ph.D., concurs: “Remember that no biochemical,
    neurological, or genetic markers have been found for attention deficit disorder,
    oppositional defiant disorder, depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, compulsive
    alcohol and drug abuse, overeating, gambling, or any other so‐called mental illness,
    disease, or disorder.”5
    • Charles E. Dean, M.D., says that people are “convinced that the origins of mental
    illnesses are to be found in biology, when, despite more than three decades of
    research, there still is no proof…The absences of any well‐defined physical causation
    is reflected in the absence of any laboratory tests for psychiatric diagnoses—much in
    contrast to diabetes and many other physical disorders.
    • “[T]here are no tests available for assessing the chemical status of a living person’s
    brain.” – Elliot Valenstein, Ph.D.6
    • Psychiatrist David Kaiser adds this: “Patients [have] been diagnosed with ‘chemical
    imbalances’ despite the fact that no test exists to support such a claim, and…there is
    no real conception of what a correct chemical balance would look like.”7
    • “Biopsychiatrists have created the myth that psychiatric ‘wonder’ drugs correct
    chemical imbalances. Yet there is no basis for this model because no chemical imbalance
    has ever been proven to be the basis of a mental illness,” wrote Ty C. Colbert, a clinical
    psychologist.
    The whole theory was invented to push drugs. “The way to sell drugs is to sell
    psychiatric illness,” says Carl Elliot, a bioethicist, University of Minnesota.8
    1 Interview of Dr. Mark Graff on CBS Studio 2, July 2005.
    2 “All Fired Up,” People magazine, 11 July 2005.
    3 Kelly Patricia O’Meara, Psyched Out: How Psychiatry Sells Mental Illness and Pushes Pills That Kill (Author
    House, 2006), pp. 47-48, citing Jonathan Leo paper, “The Biology of Mental Illness,” 2004.
    4 Edward Drummond, M.D., The Complete Guide to Psychiatric Drugs (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2000),
    pp. 15-16.
    5 Bruce D. Levine, Ph.D., Commonsense Rebellion: Debunking Psychiatry, Confronting Society, (Continuum, New
    York, 2001), p. 277.
    6 Elliot S. Valenstein, Ph.D., Blaming the Brain, (The Free Press, New York, 1998), p. 4.
    7 David Kaiser, M.D., “Commentary: Against Biologic Psychiatry,” Psychiatric Times, Dec. 1996.
    8 Shankar Vedantam, “Drug Ads Hyping Anxiety Make Some Uneasy,” The Washington Post, 16 July 2001.

  • Godsplan4thechildren

    ALLIANCE FOR HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION
    Promoting Openness, Full Disclosure, and Accountability http://www.ahrp. org

    Gabriel Myers, a 7-year old boy who had been prescribed four powerful psychotropic drugs, committed suicide.
    According to the Florida chief of Department of Children & Families, the boy was taking two or three of these powerful, mind-altering drugs at the time of his death.
    Gabriel was being treated by a “board certified child psychiatrist” who is on a list of Florida doctors that the state Agency for Health Care Administration red-flagged as having ”problematic’ ‘ prescribing practices.
    The list flags doctors with a high volume of prescriptions of mental-health drugs or potentially dangerous combinations of the medications.

    Three of the drugs prescribed for Gabriel are controversial and carry Black Box warnings about death and suicide: the antidepressant, Lexapro, the antipsychotic, Zyprexa, and Symbiax, Eli Lilly’s deadly combination – Zyprexa and Prozac. These three drugs were not approved for use in children.

    FDA officials, whose duty is to protect the public from dangerous drugs, turn a blind eye to the abusive prescribing of these toxic drugs for children. Indeed, FDA officials have shielded unscrupulous drug manufacturers – even as those companies pled guilty to criminal marketing.
    Case in point: Eli Lilly, manufacturer of both Zyprexa and Symbiax, pled guilty and settled the criminal case for $1,4000,000, 000 after settling a civil case . http://www.ahrp. org/cms/content/ view/527/ 72/

    Without a law to protect them, without an agency to protect them, without a pediatric association to protect them, American children are being targeted by drug manufacturers and unscrupulous child psychiatrists who receive payments from drug manufacturers have promoted the off-label, unapproved use of potentially lethal drugs for children. That’s how companies such as Eli Lilly were able to expand psychotropic drug market, garnering $39, 000,000,000 from Zyprexa a toxic, death hastening drug.

    On January 14, 2009, New York Times reporters Gardiner Harris and Alex Berenson, who have been covering Eli Lilly and Zyprexa for several years, reported that in addition to targeting the elderly for illegal marketing, “the company also pressed doctors to treat disruptive children with Zyprexa, court documents show, even though the medicine’s tendency to cause severe weight gain and metabolic disorders is particularly pronounced in children … The children receiving Zyprexa gained so much weight during the study that a safety monitoring panel ordered that they be taken off the drug.”

    The Miami Herald reports that Dr. David L. Katz, professor of public health at Yale University, Medical School, called the use of such drugs on youngsters “extremely risky,” He questioned whether the boy needed to be taking such powerful medications absent a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
    “These are medications that are potent and potentially dangerous,” Katz said. “They certainly are powerful drugs for anybody, let alone a 7-year-old boy.”

    Doctors who disregard the Black Box label warnings and prescribe highly toxic drugs for children – often in lethal combinations – should have their licenses revoked because they pose a serious danger to the community.

    Contact: Vera Hassner Sharav, veracare@ahrp. org, 212-595-8974

    Broward child’s suicide raises questions about medication
    Apr. 21, 2009, BY CAROL MARBIN MILLER, MIAMI HERALD cmarbin@MiamiHerald .com
    Weeks before his death, Gabriel Myers, the 7-year-old Broward boy who hanged himself in the shower of his foster home, had been prescribed a powerful mind-altering drug linked by federal regulators to an increased risk of suicide in children.

    In all, Gabriel had been prescribed four psychiatric drugs, two or three of which he was taking at the time of his death, said Jack Moss, Broward chief of the state Department of Children & Families. Moss said he is not sure which medications the boy was taking because Margate police took the foster home’s medication log as part of an investigation into Gabriel’s death last week.

    Three of the psychotropic drugs carry U.S. Food and Drug Administration “black box” label warnings for children’s safety, the strongest advisory the federal agency issues. Three of the medications are not approved for use with young children, though they are widely prescribed to youngsters “off label” – meaning doctors can prescribe the drug even if not formally approved for that use.

    In 2005 – reacting to a series of stories in The Miami Herald that as many as one in four foster children were prescribed potentially dangerous mind-altering drugs – state lawmakers approved a law aimed at curbing their use. Children’s advocates now question whether the law is being ignored.

    Gabriel was being treated by a Broward psychiatrist who is on a list of Florida doctors that the state Agency for Health Care Administration red-flagged as having “problematic” prescribing practices, said Robert Constantine, director of AHCA’s Medicaid Drug Therapy Management Program, which tracks prescribing of psychiatric drugs to children.

    The list flags doctors with a high volume of prescriptions of mental-health drugs or potentially dangerous combinations of the medications.

    Dr. Sohail Punjwani has been on the list every quarter in which regulators have monitored the prescribing of psychotropic drugs since the program was created in 2006, said Constantine, a professor at the University of South Florida’s Mental Health Institute. The practices of about 17,000 Florida doctors who prescribe medications to children on Medicaid are studied every quarter, and about 300 to 450 end up red-flagged on the list.

    And though Florida law requires that either a parent or judge consent to the use of psychotropic drugs on foster children, a source with knowledge of the boy’s case said Gabriel already had been taking a three-drug cocktail when Broward Circuit Judge Lisa Porter was informed at a March 11 hearing. The judge approved the medications over the objection of a court-appointed guardian, the source said.

    “We are devastated,” said Jon Myers, the boy’s maternal uncle, who cared for him from June through October 2008. “Gabriel’s problems could not be solved by a pharmacy.”

    Four feet tall and 67 pounds, with short-cropped brown hair, Gabriel was a bright, charming and often sweet little boy, those who knew him say.

    But he already had a sad past hinting at a troubling future. Records obtained by The Miami Herald show Gabriel may have been molested by an older boy while he was living with grandparents in Ohio, while his mother was in jail.

    On Thursday, Gabriel locked himself in a bathroom and hanged himself with a detachable shower head after arguing with the 19-year-old son of his foster dad about his lunch, Moss said.

    DCF petitioned a judge on Tuesday to unseal the boy’s records in response to requests from The Herald and other media, spokeswoman Leslie Mann said.

    Punjwani told The Miami Herald that he is board certified as a child psychiatrist. He did not recall Gabriel, but Punjwani said he was part of a “huge” group practice and may have been one of many clinicians to treat the boy.

    Punjwani defended the use of psychiatric drugs on children, even if they are not approved for such use, saying the lack of approval stems from the reluctance of drug makers and the medical establishment to launch clinical trials on children.
    The anti-psychotic drugs, he added, are used routinely to treat mood instability and insomnia among children.

    Gabriel originally had been prescribed Vyvanse, an attention deficit/hyperactivi ty disorder drug approved for kids aged 6 through 12, Lexapro, an anti-depressant which is not approved for children, and Zyprexa, an anti-psychotic drug that also is not approved for kids, said Moss.

    Both Punjwani and Moss said they think the Lexapro and Zyprexa were discontinued in recent weeks, and that a drug called Symbyax – which contains the medication in Zyprexa along with another antidepressant – was substituted.

    Symbyax, recently approved for severe depression, is among a group of commonly prescribed anti-depressants, such as Prozac and Paxil, that the FDA warned in 2003 were linked to an increase in ”suicidal thoughts or behaviors” among children. Symbyax is not approved by the FDA for use on children.

    Dr. David L. Katz, professor of public health at Yale University’s medical school, called the use of such drugs on youngsters ”extremely risky,” He questioned whether the boy needed to be taking such powerful medications absent a diagnosis of schizophrenia. ”These are medications that are potent and potentially dangerous,” Katz said. “They certainly are powerful drugs for anybody, let alone a 7-year-old boy.”

    Jon Myers, the uncle who cared for Gabriel after abuse investigators found him in a car in a Denny’s parking lot after his mother had passed out, questions whether Gabriel needed such potent medications to begin with.

    Myers said the boy’s pediatrician had discontinued all psychotropic drugs while Gabriel lived with him, and the boy did well, earning A’s and B’s at the Hollywood Christian Academy.

    “We did not have any issues with him having tantrums,” Myers said. “He would get upset, like little boys do.”

    A week or two before Gabriel died, his grandfather in Ohio expressed concerns that the boy sounded overmedicated. “My father said that the last conversation he had a couple of weeks ago Gabriel sounded like he was too drugged,” Myers said.

    “He sounded like he was doped up.”

    C 2009 Miami Herald Media Company. All Rights Reserved. http://www.miamiher ald.com

    FAIR USE NOTICE: This may contain copyrighted (C ) material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Such material is made available for educational purposes, to advance understanding of human rights, democracy, scientific, moral, ethical, and social justice issues, etc. It is believed that this constitutes

  • Godsplan4thechildren
  • Godsplan4thechildren

    The corrupted business of child protective services
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ry5eSKyZ98g this is a must see.

    Senator Nancy Schaefer exposes how each state is the number one human trafficking ring of children who have been taken from poor families who have not abused or neglected their children but were taken for state profit. She explains about the corrupted judges,attorneys,social workers and health care providers from the top to bottom are all involved criminal activity and are immune from prosecution

    Nancy Schaefer, former Georgia State Senator and President of Eagle Forum of Georgia and Eagle Forum’s National Chairman of Parents’ Rights, spoke at the World Congress of Families in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, on the subject of “The Unlimited Power of Child Protective Services.”

    Nancy Schafer explained to over 4,000 attendees from some 60 countries how CPS is a threat to children and families not only in the U. S., but in many other countries that have patterned their Child Protective Services, Foster Care, Family Court and Adoption Services after the U.S. and supplied, with taxpayer dollars, the financial incentives to turn all Child Protective Services into a lucrative business.

    Nancy Schaefer, as always, was on the cutting edge of how to take the family back from the “social gestapo” made up of judges, caseworkers, court appointed attorneys, investigators, guardian ad litems, psychologists, psychiatrists, counselors, and more.

    Nancy Schaefer encouraged immediate change to State and Federal policies and the abolishing of Federal and State financial incentives that use taxpayer dollars to separate families for money.

    “The family is the natural foundation for marriage and home relationships. The family deserves and should always be protected by the state, the culture and by society.”

    Nancy Schaefer was murdered in March 2010

  • Gary Ogletree

    Elderly people are being drugged just as carelessly for a variety of motives. My mother had mild dementia; the drug she was given for it had a long list of very harmful side effects as well as being mind altering. I suspect she would have been better off with LSD-25. She might have enjoyed listening to Bob Wills and Patsy Cline while tripping. She decided she didn’t like the drug and stopped taking it cold turkey. Three days of manic behavior and disturbing delusions followed. I’m sure the doctor meant well but he was annoyed when she stopped making appointments, being quite healthy otherwise.

  • http://www.chrisahickey.com Chrisa Hickey

    Can we have a discussion on the rate of mental illness in the parents of kids in foster care?

    There is a much, much higher rate of mental illness in the parents of children that end up in foster care. Often, that’s why they wind up in foster care. Read more about the studies here:

    http://www.healthyplace.com/parenting/parents-with-mental-illness/parents-with-mental-illness-and-child-custody-issues/menu-id-61/

  • Wendy-keenan

    It breaks my heart to think of little innocent kids being forced to take dangerous mind altering drugs like amphetamines and psychotropics. These drugs do cause brain damage no matter what pharmaceuticals say. They don;t care how many kids die. Psychiatry is destroying society with its unproven pseudoscience and the government must ban psychotropics for children. I applaud everyone who is fighting for this most worthy cause and I pray for these poor kids

  • Apple

    My child was never in fostercare, but the system made sure his dad had no say in his care. Mom doctor shopped for the one who liked her and said what she wanted to hear. Any doctor who dared mentioning that “enviroment”, meaning being left alone while her and boyfriend partied, was discarded immediately. Any drugs that kept him quiet were o.k. With our current system in place, the schools would not help because of the extra time and paperwork. If dad said anything, he was threatened with I’ll just tell them you hit me! I own him. My son is with the lord now.

  • OfficiallyLynne

    Ten years as a Foster Mum and very few children have come into my care without
    significant mental health issues, ADHD, Foetal Alcohol Syndrome. Austism, Bi-Polar etc. I try to keep them off medication as long as I can but I will draw the line when a young one becomes a danger to themself or others. It’s not their fault but what is at fault is the strength of the medication used. I want a child medicated to calm them down a little, not to dope them up so they can’t even think straight. I judge the proof of the dose by their performance atschool. If they are bettering their previous efforts and are happy I’m pretty sure the dose is right. I will fight any Doctor or any Case Worker who wants to dope my kids up. I currently have 2 ADHD little ones I’ve had since birth, who I’ve managed to keep off medication using aromatherapy and a calm environment. You can do it if you put in the effort.

  • jayd

    Is it me, or did this person not make any sense at all???

  • jayd

    These drugs are not tested on children, so therefore the doctors are taking a chance prescribing these medications. Sadly enough, one medication for one symptom ends up causing a different symptom which then requires a different drug…the cycle just continues.

  • TIm Glisson

    I couldn’t agree more. My wife and I have adopted 15 kids out of America’s Child Welfare System and the stories abound. We’re trying to make some media noise around many of these issues and would love to connect with you at tglisson@twcny.rr.com.

  • Susan

    One point of discussion for reform should be how do we empower the foster families to question the providers? Is that medication necessary? Are their other options? How much does that cost? Watch this for more ideas: http://whatstherealcost.org/video.php?post=five-questions

  • Carole Osgood

    I just saw your post and wanted to tell you that the GAO Office was investigating cases like YOURS. I do know that they DID want to talk with Foster care Parents or adoptive parents of previous foster kids who had problems with the drugs that were being given. They wanted to be able to see the prescriptions given. Mainly talk to you at least via email & get data from you.

    I was trying to get the word out that they wanted cases to investigate. I hope they are still taking cases to review. They wanted this from previous foster care children too.

    Please tell the GAO that you want to tell your story. Email: FosterKids@gao.gov & tell them you want your story known about and want to give them any information you can to help get this wild & (possibly fraudulent) prescribing of drugs to children stopped.

    There are a LOT of people fighting to get the psyches & drugging out of our children’s lives.

    A short video you would appreciate by CCHR (Citizen’s Commission on Human Rights)
    CCHR: Psychiatry—Labeling Kids with Bogus ‘Mental Disorders’
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wv49RFo1ckQ

  • foster mom

    I had a wonderful affectionate foster boy (2 doctors diagnosed him with ADHD over 7 months ago) who quite obviously needed treatment for his ADHD yet his caseworker believed otherwise and still does. I was his 6th placement within a year. Everytime a placement failed it was due to his behavior, which was unmanageable and he needed constant 1 0n 1 attention and redirection…Every family he was with said this .it was difficult to use positive reinforcement and rewards because his ADHD make it difficult for him to learn and retain information. Time outs had little lasting effects as they only served as a place for him to get his screaming and tantrums.
    I am so upset because of the reluctance of the caseworker to even try to help him. In some cases, like this, the lack of treatment for the child I would consider negligence.

  • http://www.facebook.com/kindness.ohio Kindness Ohio

    I live in canton ohio I have 2 kids my kids are in foster care I’m still fighting for my kids we have to stop cps / family court I would like for everyone to know I have group meetings here in canton every week If anyone would like to come to my group meetings let me I need a lot of people to contact me a lot of parents / families need a lot of help / support I would like for anyone to contact me my e-mail is kindnessohio33@yahoo.com my number is 330 268-9342

  • prayerphalm23

    My grandkids some are in foster care and I know there are under medication by court order now my grandchild have been diagnose and send to court because the side affects of this medications are promote aggresive behavior that my grandchild did not have before he went in custody of the state of Kansas It looks that; that’s part of the system to keep our kids in the
    system that’s how they keep they budget going on!!!!!

  • prayersphalm23

    The only answer you will get is that it is necessary for their budget so you only going to get the blaa,blaa, blaa scenario they always have!

  • prayersphalm23

    My symphaty for your lost I lost a child because of the medications that as well had an impact
    to him; change enormously and later he did commited sucide. May God Bless your Family from
    my family to yours. 

  • prayersphalm23

    My saluds to you too; that’s what had happened to my kids that went in custody without regards
    or safety of the kids the taken from the families that loves them to place them in custody of the state like KANSAS were kid are been abuse sexualy, mentaly phicaly and also murder by the caseworker and the foster families the state protect and pay to legaly do what parent can’t even
    afford to do.

  • prayersphalm23

    The only stress on parent is not a mental illness if that was the case the whole world would be a mental institution because of all the stress poeple go thru on a daily bases!!!!!

  • prayersphalm23

    That’s the same blaa, blaa you people give anyone that ask about what you’re doing but the reality is that the child needs their family not a stranger that do not know nothing about them; you are one of the few that happen to know how  to manage a child without medication that eventualy will cause the parent to loose their child and other families theirs.

  • prayersphalm23

    That’s not a bad idea maybe he realize what those type of drugs do to normal people that’s is he can  mentaly funtion after taking it himself!!!!!!!

  • prayersphalm23

    You have my regards and aplause to  you also because I have experience thru my kids first hand
    what this drugs do to kids no matter what the age group still it does badly brain damage and it looks like the damage it is irepairable.  You have simphaty because we as parents are left behind with the good memories and the sad memories of the aftermad.

  • prayersphalm23

    It is sad because they did that to my kids and they maybe tellilng this to my grandkids now in fostercare.  The socialworkers along with the foster families that have this kids tell our kids that
    we do not want them ant they lie in court with finding that they have build while they would say that they foster parent did not was replying with their orders they was telling the foster parents that we was not complying with their requirements and did not wanted to have nothing to do with our kids or grandkids; they are a buch of liers paid by the goverment to put us down in front our kids and grandkids; and they tell you this lies face to face with no regards on the wellbenefits of our kids!!!!!!!!!

  • prayersphalm23

    The digits that they posted not even come clouse to the reality of the many kids in foster care something they never posted are the runaway kids because of the abuse and neglets in mainly
    KANSAS STATE CUSTODY that they assure you how many time they tried to contact you when
    they did not for birthday,christmas etc..that they whole the single parties to make sure our kids
    well know accourding to their version we do not care for them when the reality is that the social worker supposely in the preventing program unit are the first to keep the drama going on its not what they say is what actually  they do not do behind close doors.(‘THERE’S OF COURSE”)

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  • Lisa

    I really admired both foster parents of what they did . How i wish some parents have more patience,
    understanding,LOVE and won’t give up by just giving this kind of medication to their children. We know there’s a way. Love, Understanding , Patience, what all they need. Have Faith !!!!!

  • Lisa

    I STRONGLY agree with you….

  • Lisa

    Right… :)

  • Lisa

    What if these people who agrees with this medication for the children, will be prescribed medication to their own love ones, what would they feel or do ?

  • SH

    WOW ..HHMMM all these people taht think the GOVERNMENT should mind their own business when it comes to our lives and that of our families. Taking children that are high-strung which I beleive might be inhertied..and placing them with Fosterparent and facilities who can’t handle the stress and so drug them. hhhmm isn’t that like what a State Menal Insitution does. Creating more probem in the long run as what happens to those kids when their 18 yrs old .. 1 guess, jail and prison. Is that the promise of the Government to LOVE and PROTECT YOU from HARM???? Who’s commiting the most harm???
    I had my kids taken back in 1994, I was Not a DRUG ADDICT, or an ALCOLHOLIC, I had a problem child WHO beat the others KIDS, and even KIDS at school. I was seeking Mwental Healthcare form a Doctor when the State cut of Medical Care to my family..HHHMMM who’s at fault here??? My oldest child daughter decided to beat the CRAP out of my youngest 18months son. I came to his rescue and got him aways from her but it left a mark on her. SO can YOU guess HOW the story goes..
    YUP… a SINGLE parent with 3 KIDS, 11,8, 18months…NOT getting child support.. of corse if that is any NEW news to that get their KIDS TAKEN. Going to school for accounting which requires security check.. Education shot to HELL…An living on STATE ASSITANTANCE to help care for the kids.. util I could graduation and get a good job… That was the plan…But out of control children like to try to control things so by saying “HELP ME !, I DON’T want to MIND so I’ll just LEAVE home”. Do they just take the Problem child nope…It’s their GOAL to get EVERYONE off STATE assitance including FOSTER kids Farm them out A.S.A.P. ,GET them adopted out. Which ever you prefer, none-the-less. After I did everything they asked, their attempt to bonce around visitation so I never knew when to show up. An of course DFS refuse to let them be in court ordered family parenting classes and counciling because it was inconvuent for the foster parents to get them there for the class. My Attorneys…yes I had 3 appointed to me. If they didnt work hrd to help get those KIDS back then I ask the court for another. They arent there for the parents anyway.. there pubic defenders. which at first the Judge denied me an Attorney and I slapped her with about 10 court documents she had to address in court one of them. Dissmissal, another change of venue for violating my rights and cohercing with the County AG to force me to sign document within a week of removel to terminate my rights..while she the “JUDGE” was at the same denying me public council. WELL I CUT to the CHASE…I was a child WHO was in and out of FOSTERCARE. I had a bad Parent who ONLY thought of men. By-the-way, I had NO horrible boyfriend to blame anything on. I gave MY KIDS ALL MY TIME. The problem child was a troublem maker and NO WAY was ANY MAN staying around to deal with that. Even her own FATHER left her. Well after many times running away from abuse and going to my Grandparent I was emancipated, I worked supported myself stayed out of troulbe, got married and had my 1st kid at 20, and went back to work. Weel the ex was in the MILITARY so off over sea he went and came back a mess. On drugs and an alcoholic, tried to help with councling, didn’t work. So we divorced. He never worked again. Hence NO suppoert for the kids. NOT even SSA or military benifits as they messed him up, and now his family too. I was working on a military base as a civilian worker. But I decided to go back to school in the law and Political Science…I was even a VOTED in STUDENT Senator for the large collage. But had to move to State where my family was and then after my grandpa’s death to UTAH. Where if you have blued blond kids they want them to keep and sale to the Rich. That what removels all come down to $$$$ andif you are on benefits. I was finishing up my worthless EDUCATION as because when they made me a Criminal with a Record you cant get a job …Yep, not able to pass a security check. Even if your job has nothing to do with kids. So on with my LIFE I went as the smart a** judge said now you can go live your life free of the burden of them. How they can just take someone kids.. I beleive is unconstitutional and should go to the suppreme court. The DFS waiting out to 18month termination deadline pulling every dirty trick and lie. The courts putting off dates of hearing form months to have my vistation right revued , causing me not to see the kids for months on end. Then at the end to says ”I have seen them enough in the last years to have a bonded relationship.” Wow and who’s hands here???? Yes I’m a boat rock, I questioned what they where doing when it came to me kids. Cutting off 18inches of hair because the foster parent doent want to care for it….WHAT??? is’nt that the job you take on to care for them. NOT butcher their hair so far up it takes years to grow out. well I just cried. Doing that  to children who had never had their hair cut much in their lifes. But were always well groomed and complemented always on how nice the 2 girls looked.   So fast forward to today WHAT EVER happend to those kids? Well the problem child continued to be 1, her FOSTER DAD took a gun to his head and blow it off after getting caught having sex with her. Of corse she denies it but was caught by other foster kids. The wife while after the husband death had men coming in and out of the house.. so my daughter was forcably raped. They had removed her the problem was dead. They didnt care about her needs, just somewhere to houer as they couldn’t adopt her out. Then she went half way houses and started smoking and drinking. Until she reach your kicked out in the street time with NO guidance. Where she was then injuried and got in troulbe with the LAW. Any guess to where EVERYONE want to send . Yep.. back to me the unfit parent…LOL . The other daughter was spoiled by a RICH SINGLE woman who worked for the GOVERNMENT (high ranking). Go Figure !!! who traveled a lot took her with her and if NOT left her alone. At 16yrs tons of issuse this parent only know how to buy this child not parent this child with tuff love. She ended up getting married to a man (WHO beats her) they came to me for help in a place to live they had a baby. YES ..I tried  to help  teach them to be INDEPENDANT. But Rich Foster parent to the rescue an off the went back East to his family where the beatings continued and she had 3 more kids by the age of 24 (4 total). An the rich Foster parent was off and running to her job overseas all the time. I had brought up to this parent that there was a lot of drinking going on, an I suppected DRUGS of him. Well he got caught beating her up 1 to many times, think they were drunk and on drugs. Guess came knocking at the door DFS. Off her kids went into Foster Care, where they still are today in relitive placed family home . HIS MOTHER..HMMM is that dangerous after all he got his beating people up from somewhere. Now to my SON , he was almost 2yrs old his Father was from a relationship I had. He was in the Navy and went off said and baby(son) doesnt need his father till their older. So his sister came and took him into RELATIVE placement, she had 2 young boys he was the youngest. A good baby, but he changed. I beleive it was sudden shock syndrome. They had in another Foster family and tokk him out togive him to her. Well I knew she really didnt want him she was just going to be the babysitter till her brother changed his mind. Of I objected ,but on deaf ears. At 10 she gave him to his Father , he was happy till then I had seen him play baseball a few times. Then his Father made him stay in shelter for hurricane Katrina for months . I call the Utah and Louisanna, DFS and the Adopting Board asking what are the regulation if a parent doesn’t want a child anymore. They are to give them back to the STATE they went to care in. He needed to be proteceted from not only a hurricane problem but the lack of his own family caring about his well being. He sister got mad DFS went to her home. How she got out of it WHO KNOWS. But she NOW works in child enforcement which I find it funny as I would ask his family to help me get support from thier brother to care for the baby,(SON) which they refuse to get invovled even with a paternaty
    test and court order. These GOOD law abidding Foster parent refused. Back to the oldest daughter proble maker. yes.. I took her in  helped her get better, find part-time work, an appartment and she was a full time student. It didnt last long she got pregnant, I helped her with that as she had health issue the last 3 months . I helped her finacially keep her place till see ewent back to work. Bought clothes and care items for the new baby, as the father was never helping and still doesnt thegirl is 6yrs no child support. she got on her feet work met a guy and got married and he refuse to let her work. was married for 3yrs with no healthcare, and not allowed to drive or even go grocery shoping he chose the feed and did it all she would call me for personl care items as he didnt feel they needed to waste money on feminem napkins. Soon she was so depressed and suicidal. I packed up the 2 kids 4- 6 and took tthem all home with me. she when back to school graduate in July and got here a place as soon as we could. Now she’s divorvced with a boyfriend that is on her about it if she misses 1 day of school. I all this the PARENT (ME) was there to give her moral amd financial support. What happen to the STAT of UTAH commitment to help her, be her parent, guide her. Well I think that DFS of every State should be sued for abandonment of a child. Breaking there written bidding contract to these KIDS to care for them. Just like a marriage, if you go in front of a court and claim responcibilities and take custody then of themand all there problem for the rest of the kids lives… as isnt that what REAL PARENTS do guide them through thick and think, good and bad, sickness and health. Back to my Son So he is now 18yrs we talk to facebook ,yahoo. He tells me how abusive his father has benn for years. That he didnt even know how to get a hold of me , and that everyone has told him I BAD / EVIL.I fly him here to find out all these BAD things that happen to him, ane to help himget a grip on life as he is depressed, suicidal and disfuntional. I begin to help him with church, GOD as he HATES GOD for punishing HIM with all the pain and hatered towards him from his whole family on his father side. I have him in a training program for work, and teachin him to drive I have pulled out the old DFS CASE file and let him start reading the truth. I encourage him to write his thoughts down and think and sueing anyone and everyone he can for distroying his life. But NOT only that to try to change the Laws by gathering those victoms of DFS, who are now adults, To study and show that removel doesn’t save a child it cripples that child as  an adult for life. Things have to change ,help us change them. If you are interest in info E- mail me and him  upallknght@yahoo.com to change things for the better. To gather info from past FOSTER KIDS and parents Who had them taken by the courts and DFS. To final give support to a crying parent outside a court room after the AG and DFS and Judges play their dirty GAMES with needy children and  parents. What in order to keep their job..Give of your time. Thanks . About the Drugs they put my kids on all kinds of drugs to control there inheirant HIGH strung
    behavior. But if properly directed turn out to be had workers.
     
      

  • Rizn2top

    I am raising 3 of my grandchildren. Sometimes enviromental issues caused by the parents are the direct cause of the children needing medication to cope. Medication to help a child deal with anger is a necessity until he can learn to deal with it. Other times a parent sheltered a child so much the child could not function with others. This also warrants the use of meds to bring the child out of the dark. I have been experiencing this for the past 2 years. Because of the meds they are functioning like normal little boys and no one would ever guess they have such serious issues. Their mom would take them off the meds if she had them. She does not think they are necessary. They are “A” students in school and have learned to play team sports instead of being street kids. Would you take them off and risk losing them back to the streets again? NOT ME!!!!!!!!!!

  • Rizn2top

    Sometimes love isn’t enough. Sometimes their brains just don’t function in the right way. Not to the fault of the child but because of neglect. Medication can help bring a child out of the dark and show them that life is great.

  • ND parent

    Couldn’t see the video. . . but have been through this with my son who was in foster care. Excessively high doses (3x the therapeutic adult dose of just one of his meds), multiple drugs at the same time which required additional rx’s due to side effects. Worst, antipsychotics known at the time by pharma companies (but they concealed this info and illegally marketed these drugs, leading to record high criminal fines for Eli Lilly and lawsuits against pharma companies by 36 states) to cause weight gain, increased blood sugar and cholesterol, in some cases leading to hyperglycemia, pancreatitis, abd even death. My son became morbidly obese (normal weight at time of entry into care), developed chronic GERD, high blood pressure, and asthma symptoms as well as eventually needing hernia repair after losing the weight. Sedation seriously affected his education, leading to ultimately dropping out (academic achievement was 2 years ahead of grade level when he was living with me before entering care). Took 4 years after leaving foster care to return his weight to normal and eliminate the secondary medical conditions. Prescribing these drugs tends to go hand in hand with activity restrictions (for “disciplinary” reasons) meaning minimal physical activity which increases the weight gain aspect and has negative psychological effects as well. When moved to a more supportive foster home (and a different doctor) the “need” for the extreme use of medications and restrictions disappeared–had far fewer problems and was able to come home. (Note, he was not moved because he had improved, he was moved bec his caseworker admitted he was absolutely miserable in the placement where he was drugged to the hilt. The treatment center that was drugging him was threatening him with transfer to state detention facility–which of course they had no authority to do–because they saw him as such a problem. They were wrong, it quickly became evident it was the placement, not the child, that was the problem. Once out of that environment into a supportive foster home, and with the meds decreased significantly, he was home within a few months)

  • Mad Angel

    Hows can a child learn to cope if we Medicare them and do not give them the patience to learn how to cope. Medication teaches nothing but drug addiction.

  • regina

    …and all this time i thought we were fighting a “war on drugs”….