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Timeline: Huberman, a New Orchestra and World War II

The protagonist of Orchestra of Exiles is the great violinist Bronislaw Huberman (1882–1947). He dedicated years of his musical career not to performing, but to saving musicians and music culture before the outbreak of World War II and the Holocaust. World events and a late formal education politicized the renowned artist, who openly rebuked Germany when the Nazis took power and began oppressing Jewish citizens. Pivotal events in Huberman’s life as a musician and founder of the Palestine Symphony Orchestra are shared in the timeline, below. The chronicle of music and politics also notes key events in relevant world history, such as the German government’s actions against Jews leading up to the Holocaust, and the political conditions in Palestine that delayed and even threatened the founding of the new orchestra there in 1936. Though no longer known by its original name, this is the classical music history that gave birth to the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.