Islam and Modernity

KATE SEELYE: Here at al Azhar, one of the Muslim world’s oldest and most respected centers of learning and worship, Muslims come to study and pray and to ask how to live a devout life in the modern world. They come for fatwas — religious rulings that are nonbinding. Clerics give advice on how to be good Muslims in matters of religion, family and even finance.

This vendor says fatwas are indispensable.

MOHAMMED (through translator): You feel very reassured after getting a fatwa, and you know you can build your future plans on it.

SEELYE: But recently, some of Azhar’s fatwas have come under criticism. Last year a cleric ruled that an unmarried man and woman could work together alone, which is normally forbidden in Islam, but only if the woman established a maternal relationship with her colleague by breastfeeding him five times. The cleric was suspended for his fatwa, which raised questions about Islam’s relationship with modernity.

In Egypt, the modern and the traditional live side by side. Like other developing countries, Egypt has been flooded in the last decade with new technologies like satellite TV and the Internet, and that’s exposed this conservative society to a confusing mix of Western values and culture.

Dr. Ragab Abu Malih

Islam Online is trying to help Muslims navigate this fast-changing environment. It’s one of the Muslim world’s most popular Internet sites and provides religious advice as well as counseling and information about health, science, and culture in both Arabic and English.

Clerics like Ragab Abu Malih take questions during live fatwa sessions four times a day. He says he receives more than 700 queries daily but can only answer a fraction of them.

Dr. RAGAB ABU MALIH (Managing Editor, Shari’ah Section, Islam Online, through translator): I think if we answered the 700 questions, then more would come. People are asking questions they never had before because of new technologies and influences.

SEELYE: Questions include whether it’s permissible to find a spouse through the Internet. Can a man divorce his wife in a text message? And what about Internet chatting? Flirting between men and women is forbidden in Islam, but can they chat online? According to clerics here, it’s best if a third party monitors the chat.

ABU MALIH (through translator): The Qur’an did not mention these details in their entirety, but it guides us in our advice.

SEELYE:  But critics question the advice being given. Islam Online may be using modern technology, but it’s spreading a very traditional message. The cleric who founded the site, Yousef Qaradawi, is considered a moderate in the region. But his fatwas have opposed women traveling alone without a male guardian, and he’s ruled against women being heads of state.

For secular Muslims like Dalia Ziade, such views are decidedly anti-modern. Ziade is a human rights activist. The 26-year-old accuses religious institutions in Egypt of spreading fundamentalist beliefs, like the veiling of women.

Dalia Ziade

DALIA ZIADE (Cairo Office Director, American Islamic Congress): In my mother’s age, when she was my age, I see her photos. It was tremendously different. It was, you know, she wore short skirts and she used to wear t-shirts without sleeves, sleeveless t-shirts, and nobody used to ask her or to instruct her not to wear this or wear that.

SEELYE: Ziade says in today’s environment she has to wear a headscarf in order not to be harassed. She blames this on what she calls the growing piety movement.

Ms. ZIADE: Everyone now believes that if only he gets religious, all his problems will be solved.

SEELYE: As part of her work, Ziade’s been compiling fatwas that target women. Some clerics say they can’t walk on the same side of the street as men. This fatwa from a high-profile Islamist claims they’re not fit to be judges. Ziade says in this day and age the principles of modernity should be universal — principles like the acceptance of individual and women’s rights, reason, doubt, and the separation of mosque and state. Instead, she says, Islamists are taking Egypt back to another era.

Ms. ZIADE: You know, now I can travel anywhere in the world through my Internet connection. I can go to the U.S right now and see anything there. So how come in this open communication with the whole world I’m still in prison with these ideas?

SEELYE: These ideas like…

Ms. ZIADE: These fundamentalist ideas that go back 1,400 years ago.

SEELYE: Egyptians have always been religious, but just a few decades ago society was far more secular. Now Islam is increasingly part of the public sphere. Qur’anic chants are played in taxis, restaurants, and shops. Signs encouraging women to wear the headscarf are plastered on walls. The Niqab, the full face covering virtually unseen in the past, is increasingly common. More and more men display prayer bumps on their foreheads. The piety trend, say analysts, is fueled by political frustration, poverty, and increasing Saudi influence, and it also has the support of much of Egypt’s middle and professional classes.

Ahmad Abu Haiba

Ahmad Abu Haiba is a prominent media professional. He’s launching the region’s first Islamic music video channel to spread faith-based values. This video is about a farmer’s dreams of going to Mecca.

AHMAD ABU HAIBA (Executive Director, 4Shbab TV): This is how a Muslim should be: he’s a good man, he has good relations with all the people around him, he loves kids, he loves simple people.

SEELYE: Abu Haiba named his station  4Shebab, or “For Youth” in English. He says he’s using the power of satellite TV to help rebuild a Muslim youth identity.

Mr. ABU HAIBA: We don’t have a clear, stable, strong identity, and that’s what I’m trying to do. I’m trying to help the young people to establish their identity. This is the same identity that the Prophet Muhammad presented to his companions.

SEELYE: Abu Haiba hopes his videos will help counter some of what he says are the negative influences of Western music videos and television.

ABU HAIBA: And this drove us now to drugs and relationships, which really doesn’t fit with our culture.

SEELYE: In contrast, his videos emphasize community and family values, like respect for elders. Women mainly play the role of wives and mothers in the background. Abu Haiba says he doesn’t choose to embrace the principles of modernity, because they’re not in keeping with Islamic values.

ABU HAIBA: I don’t think that modernity is part of these values. I mean, when I learn Islam I know there’s a part of it that cares about people’s life and people’s life changes. But still always the major values and the major pillars as it is never change with time. Modernity is something linked with time, and Islam is timeless.

SEELYE: That view of Islam is the problem today, says Gamal al Banna, a reformist cleric. He says Islamists have a fixed reading of the Qur’an because long ago scholars banned new interpretations of the religious texts.

Gamal al Banna

GAMAL AL-BANNA (President, Islamic Revival Movement, through translator): The religious institutions tell us that innovation will lead us down the wrong path. Anything that has to do with innovation is dangerous, and that’s wrong. You can’t say that religious opinions made over 1,000 years ago are valid for all times. We must have a revolution in the understanding of Islam, a revolution almost like Martin Luther’s.

SEELYE: Until then, says Banna, Islam will not be able to accommodate itself to the modern world. The 88-year-old has written dozens of books about the need for the renewal of Islam and the importance of the separation of religion and state. He’s even issued a fatwa saying Muslim women don’t have to cover their hair. Banna says Muslims must stop relying on scholars to interpret the holy texts. Instead, he says, they should read the Qur’an directly, keeping in mind its emphasis on knowledge and wisdom.

Mr. AL BANNA (through translator): The Qur’anic verse goes, “It was revealed to them, the Qur’an and wisdom.” The search for wisdom has proven itself to be a successful experiment for all peoples and all times. We have to adapt, and we have to learn from all other experiences with wisdom so that Islam isn’t a closed box, but it has an open window to the world.

SEELYE: Banna believes such reform will take place, but long after his lifetime.


  • Don

    Good article, keep it up.

  • wileysnakeskins

    If islam doesn’t modernize there is sure to be a confrontation; and he hardliners are begging for it. Until they populate the world it’s not too late for the freedom loving peoples of the Earth to strike a blow for freedom, from the 7th century.

  • almuttawakil

    Alsalamolakom. mondern has a place. and with wisdom it can be applied. If it is not broke dont fix it. The modest way is and always will be the best way as it was. not just in the way one may dress or act or talk, but all these things combine with the modest honest intention to please Allah(GOD) and not ourselfs, meaning to put God first. And you may wonder how in our lives do we make our chioces.As muslims it is putting Allah first by seeing what does the Quran say about matters of today does it apply? sure it does. as I said modern has a place. Wars for the most part are not fought on horse back with sword and shield any more. the world has advanced for the better in this way, although the uses of the advance at times may be primitive, with wisdom it could be a good thing and vise versa with the primitive or shall I say what was before. If it’s not broke don’t fix it.

  • T. Esa

    Yes, I believe is compatible with modernization and development. However, i don not believe that Muslims should export western definitions and notions of modernity. For Modernity as we all know was a product of the Enlightenment, led by western philosophers like kant, Hegel and Baudelaire. Thus, it is illogical to assume that cultures that are as old as civilization itself should simply accept other people’s way of seeing the world is absurd and above all irrational. :)

  • huh

    seems like the reporter was simply looking for a free trip to Egypt. This article and reporting is the worst i have seen from NPR. Biased reporting and lack of research has lead to this weightless report.

    I dont think the reporter even knows what modernization means?

    Does modernization really mean wearing less clothes, being naked, not respecting the law or elders etc?

    U.S has the most prudish media and laws regarding a persons body and what part of the body can be displayed in public, of any western counterparts. the US has some of the most fundamentalist of religious people and are growing fast in numbers.

    Should we consider the US as being the most backward of western nations?

  • Integrity557

    I am a devout Christian that has been serving God for most of my life. Though Islam and Christianity share certain differences, I am verse enough to know that there are basic similarities between the two. In both religious institutions, there is always the question of “do we remain constant in our ideas or do we adjust and change with the times”. This question comes about because of advances in technology, uprising of younger generation, economy, etc.

    I am a firm believer that principles never change but doctrine can. Doctrine is not absolute which means it can change and one can still please God. The only thing that has to stay constant is Principle, which acts as the foundation of which doctrines are built upon. There are doctrines in both faiths that have been established by men who did not live in our age and therefore could not accurately or directly address our modern experience. This causes one to have to modernize doctrine which makes it more relevant for today.
    Any belief system that chooses not to do this will eventually make it’s own expiration date or loose its ability to grow. The only way to grow and not modernize is throuh famine, violence or force.

    I will agree that modernization is not based of of Western ideas, but one can learn from SOME of their Western brothers who have done a good job in embracing change, just like we can learn from SOME of our Islamic brothers who have done a good job embracing principle.

  • Salim Shaikh

    Well said sir! I agree with you full heartedly. I am a muslim from India. It pains me to see how the majority of the muslim community has been resisting to changes without accepting the fact that change is constant. Today, the community is at loggerheads with the world. Why??? There are so many questions in my head! Why are we muslims the way we are today?
    We have stopped growing in a lot of areas. Or, atleast, not at the same pace as other communities. What is the contribution of muslims in the field of science, technology, banking, medicine??? We depend on other communities for our needs. We use the fruits of labour of other communities. We watch television invented by Americans. We use telephones invented by Americans. And many other things. Yet, we have the double standard to condemn the same Americans for being satanic.