The Virginia Slave Code codifies slave status, declaring all non-Christian servants entering the colony to be slaves. It defines all slaves as real estate, acquits masters who kill slaves during punishment, forbids slaves and free colored peoples from physically assaulting white persons, and denies slaves the right to bear arms or move abroad without written permission.
New York declares that punishment by execution will be applied to certain runaway slaves.
Massachusetts makes marriage and sexual relations between blacks and whites illegal.
New York declares blacks, Indians, and slaves who kill white people to be subject to the death penalty.
Connecticut requires that Indians, mulattos, and black servants gain permission from their masters to engage in trade.
The Southern colonies require militia captains to enlist and train one slave for every white soldier.
Rhode Island requires that slaves be accompanied by their masters when visiting the homes of free persons.
Blacks outnumber whites in South Carolina.
New York forbids blacks, Indians, and mulattos from walking at night without lighted lanterns.
Pennsylvania prohibits the importation of blacks and Indians.
Rhode Island prohibits the clandestine importation of black and Indian slaves.
Pennsylvania prohibits the importation of slaves.