In the case of Prigg v. Pennsylvania, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the 1793 Fugitive Slave law is constitutional, while state personal liberty laws make unconstitutional demands on slave owners. Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave law is declared the federal government's responsibility, not the states'.
The Georgia legislature declares that it will never recognize free blacks as citizens.
In reaction to the decision in Prigg v. Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and Ohio pass personal liberty laws.
Connecticut passes a personal liberty law.
North Carolina denies citizenship to free blacks.
Oregon prohibits slavery.
Texas enters the Union as a slave state.
Missouri removes restraints on interstate slave trade.
Texas creates a system for patrolling slaves.
Pennsylvania passes a personal liberty law.
Frederick Douglass breaks with William Lloyd Garrison's abolitionist newspaper, THE LIBERATOR, to found a black abolitionist paper called THE NORTH STAR.