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Slavery and the Making of AmericaDramatic re-enactment of slaves being transported on a boat
Time and Place Slave Memories Resources The Slave Experience

Time and Place return to introduction
1619 1641 1662 1676 1694 1705 1712 1731 1739 1773 1776 1781 1787 1788 1793 1803 1817
1820 1829 1831 1837 1842 1848 1850 1857 1860 1862 1863 1865 1866 1867 1869 1871 1874
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A Nation Divided
1860
Abraham Lincoln is elected to the presidency.

1860
The slave population is now nearly four million, making the ratio of free to enslaved Americans approximately 7:1.

1860
Arizona passes an Expulsion Act, banishing all free blacks from the state.

1861
Texas prohibits manumission.

1861
South Carolina secedes from the Union, followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. Later in the year, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina also secede.

1861
The Union of Confederate States is formed. Jefferson Davis is elected its president.

1861
Harriet Jacobs' INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF A SLAVE GIRL is the first published autobiography of an African-American woman.

1861
The Civil War begins in Charleston, South Carolina.

1861
75,000 blacks volunteering for the U.S. army are rejected.

1861
Slaves seeking refuge with Northern forces are considered "contraband of war." The First Confiscation Act is passed, declaring all property used in support of rebellion, including slaves, subject to capture.

1862
Congressional resolutions offer monetary incentives to states for emancipating slaves.

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