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Slavery and the Making of AmericaDramatic re-enactment of slaves being transported on a boat
Time and Place Slave Memories Resources The Slave Experience

Time and Place return to introduction
1619 1641 1662 1676 1694 1705 1712 1731 1739 1773 1776 1781 1787 1788 1793 1803 1817
1820 1829 1831 1837 1842 1848 1850 1857 1860 1862 1863 1865 1866 1867 1869 1871 1874
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Repercussion & Redemption
1869
Tennessee is the first of many Southern states to establish an all white, Democratic "Redeemer" government sympathetic to the cause of the former Confederacy and against racial equality.

1869
In Texas v. White, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that secession is illegal. Following this decision, Congress restores republican government in Texas.

1869
The first black American diplomat is elected as minister to Haiti.

1870
The fifteenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, securing the right to vote for black adult males.

1870
Congress passes the First Enforcement Act to protect the rights of African Americans.

1870
Joseph Hayne Rainey is the first black elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. Hiram Revels is the first black elected to the U.S. Senate.

1870
For the first time, African Americans are listed by name in a U.S. census.

1870
Whites in Virginia and North Carolina vote in "Redeemer" governments.

1870
Although still unreconstructed, Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas are readmitted to the Union and are permitted to have representatives in Congress.

1870
Georgia is readmitted to the Union.

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