Photo of a protestor carrying a sign reading DEFEND Affirmative Action!!!

Grutter v. Bollinger;
Gratz v. Bollinger
2003

The use of affirmative action in school admission is constitutional if it treats race as one factor among many, its purpose is to achieve a "diverse" class, and it does not substitute for individualized review of applicant, but is unconstitutional if it automatically increases an applicant's chances over others simply because of his or her race...

Read More