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Freedom of the Press
"Democracy means that power is generally conferred on second-raters by third-raters."
Douglas on Aristophanes
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Democratic Committee
Freedom of the Press

Justice Douglas Concurrence
May 29, 1973
Seal Of The Supreme Court

"The ground rules of our democracy, as it has grown, require a free press, not necessarily a responsible or a temperate one. There aren't any halfway stages. As Aristophanes saw, democracy means that power is generally conferred on second-raters by third-raters, whereupon everyone else, from first-raters to fourth-raters, moves with great glee to try to dislodge them. It's messy but most politicians understand that it can't very well be otherwise and still be a democracy." D. Stewart, reviewing Epstein, NEWS FROM NOWHERE: TELEVISION AND THE NEWS (1972), BOOK WORLD, WASHINGTON POST, March 25, 1973