EUROPEAN COLONIZATION in the PACIFIC, WEST INDIES, and AMERICAS
IN THE PACIFIC
IN WEST INDIES
IN SOUTH AMERICA
Many enslaved indigenous people die from forced labor or flee into exile. To replace them in the labor force the British transport enslaved Africans into the West Indies to work on plantations. After 1807, when Abolitionists in England force the end of the African slave trade and later in 1833 slavery in British colonies, the British are faced with a shortage of African slave labor in the West Indies and South America.
Africans are immediately replaced by Indian coolies shipped from their colony in Asia, as well the labor of recruited/decoyed/kidnapped Chinese coolies from defeated post-Opium War China, whose emigration from Opium War Treaty ports has come under British control by 1840s. Coolies from India and China are forced to work in virtual slave labor conditions.