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1869 TRANSCONTINENTAL COMPLETED, ANTI CHINESE MOVEMENT BEGINS.

"...What will happen when the Pacific Railroad is built and Chinese labor is loosed on America." -Henry George, economist

Chinese laborer

The completion of the Transcontinental, instead of being a great triumph which Chinese workers could also celebrate with pride, was in fact the beginning of the end for them: the basis for the launching of an anti-Chinese movement to expel them for economic as well as racial reasons.

Economic competition combined with white supremacy and privilege feeds a full-blown anti-Chinese, and ultimately, anti-Asian movement.

The ANTI-CHINESE MOVEMENT mounts through a series of legislative acts, state and federal laws and spontaneous outbreaks of violence.

Chinese are displaced from occupations they pioneered, removed from their widely dispersed, relatively integrated rural settings - sometimes with riots and massacres - causing their retreat into urban ghettoes.

The ghettoes (e.g., Chinatowns) are on one hand, natural community formations of common language, customs, interdependencies, affinities, etc.

On the other hand, they suffer from being segregated, isolated, marginalized enclaves that receive second-class services and are perceived in the overall society as a collection of exoticized outsiders who are "perpetual foreigners."