GLOSSARY: RICHARD M. NIXON

RICHARD M. NIXON

37th President of the United States


KEY DATES:

1913: Born January 9, in Yorba Linda, California
1947 : On January 3, begins tenure in U.S. House of Representatives where he served until November 1950
1950: Wins U.S. Senate seat from California on November 7
1952: Dwight Eisenhower elected President of the United States on November 4 / Richard Nixon elected Vice President
1956: Eisenhower and Nixon reelected on November 6
1960: Nixon, as the Republican nominee for president, is defeated by John Kennedy on November 8
1968: Richard Nixon elected President of the United States on November 5
1972 : Nixon reelected president in November
1974 : Nixon resigns the presidency on August 9, in the wake of the Watergate scandal
1994 : Nixon dies after suffering a stroke on April 22

JERRY VOORHIS (1901-1984): Incubent Democratic congressman from California whom Nixon challenged and beat in 1946. Nixon had Voorhis's voting record printed on pink paper to suggest he had Communist sympathies.

HELEN GAHAGAN DOUGLAS (1900-1980): Democratic Congresswoman from California (1945-50). Ran against Nixon for the Senate in 1950 and lost. She was the wife of actor Melvyn Douglas.

alger  hiss ALGER HISS: A former State Department official and head of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. In 1948, the House Committee on Un-American Activities accused Hiss of being a Communist. The aggressive investigation was spurred on by Richard Nixon, then a freshman congressman from California. Hiss was found guilty of perjury and sentenced to five years in prison.

ADLAI STEVENSON: Democratic Governor of Illinois who ran unsuccessfully for president against Dwight Eisenhower in 1952 and again in 1956. Eisenhower and his vice presidential candidate Richard Nixon criticized Stevenson as being an "egghead" elitist. Stevenson went on to be US Ambassador to the UN, from 1961-1965.

DEAN ACHESON (1893-1969): Secretary of State under Truman. In 1949, Republicans in both houses of Congress passed a resolution stating that Acheson was a Communist sympathizer and should be fired. President Truman ripped the resolution in two. Acheson continued to be an influential member of the nation's foreign policy elite until his death in 1969.

KENNEDY'S DISPUTED VICTORY IN 1960: Kennedy's victory over Nixon was razor thin. In the popular vote, 34,226,731 Americans voted for Kennedy and 34,108,157 voted for Nixon. Kennedy acquired 303 of the electoral votes to Nixon's 219.

WATERGATE: Refers to the scandal which erupted after a June 1972 break-in at Democratic National watergate Committee headquarters at the Watergate office building in Washington, DC. The men who were arrested and convicted of the crime had been hired by President Nixon's reelection committee. The scandal deepened as the Senate held hearings on allegations that the President and his aides had tried to cover up the administration's connection to the case. White House audio tapes later confirmed that President Nixon had ordered a cover up. In July 1974 the House Judiciary Committee voted to recommend impeachment of the President. Mr. Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974.

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