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The Silence of Others: Discussion Guide


The Pact of Forgetting is an unwritten agreement negotiated by Spain’s leading political parties that discouraged any discourse around Franco and the civil war.

The Spanish 1977 Amnesty Law was enacted in 1977, two years after Francisco Franco's death. The law freed political prisoners and permitted those exiled abroad to return to Spain, yet also guaranteed impunity for those who participated in crimes during the Civil War and in Francoist Spain.

CeAQUA was created in 2012 to help generate support for the Argentina Lawsuit that is investigating the crimes of the Franco dictatorship. Integrated by several organizations and social movements it provides assistance to those who have or want to join the Querella Argentina, as well as local complaints through its different territorial platforms.

The Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory (La Asociación para la Recuperación de la Memoria Histórica) collects oral and written testimonies about the infractions of Francisco Franco and excavates to identify bodies from the regime’s mass graves.

The United Nations explains that in 2018, the Spanish Government proposed building a Truth Commission and expressed commitment to drawing up plans to search for those who disappeared during the civil war and Franco's dictatorship.

The International Center for Transitional Justice works with victims, civil society groups, national, and international organizations in countries that have endured massive human rights abuses to ensure redress for victims and to help prevent atrocities from occurring again.

Human Rights Watch investigates and reports on abuses happening in all corners of the world. We are roughly 450 people of 70-plus nationalities who are country experts, lawyers, journalists, and others who work to protect the most at risk, from vulnerable minorities and civilians in wartime, to refugees and children in need.

The Center for Constitutional Rights works with communities under threat to fight for justice and liberation through litigation, advocacy, and strategic communications. Since 1966, we have taken on oppressive systems of power, including structural racism, gender oppression, economic inequity, and governmental overreach.

The International Coalition of Sites of Conscience is the only worldwide network of Sites of Conscience. With over 275 members in 65 countries, we build the capacity of these vital institutions through grants, networking, training, transitional justice mechanisms and advocacy.

European Center for Constitutional Human Rights in Berlin works with international human rights lawyers, in order to protect and enforce the rights guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as other declarations of human rights and national constitutions, through legal means.

FIDH in Paris acts at national, regional and international levels in support of its member and partner organizations to address human rights abuses and consolidate democratic processes. Its work is directed at States and those in power, such as armed opposition groups and multinational corporations. Its primary beneficiaries are national human rights organizations who are members of FIDH, and through them, the victims of human rights violations.

TRIAL International in Geneva fights for justice when international crimes are committed. Such crimes are genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, enforced disappearance, sexual violence and extrajudicial execution.

Amnesty International – Spain through thoughtful research and campaigning, Amnesty International Spain helps fight abuses of human rights in Spain. Their goals are to bring torturers to justice, change oppressive laws, and free people jailed just for voicing their opinion.

LA COMUNA is an association of former political prisoners of the Franco regime constituted in the spring of 2011 to give direct testimony of the struggles and repression that characterized the last five years of the long Franco dictatorship, the period that has been called late-Francoism, as a contribution to the fight against impunity of that regime.