New Perspectives on THE WEST
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Message From Sponsor
The People
Empire Upon The Trails
Speck of the Future
Death Runs Riot
The Grandest Enterprise Under God
Fight No More Forever
The Geography of Hope
One Sky Above Us
Empire Upon the Trails



The Heart of Everything


In the Midst of Savage Darkness

We go to conquer

Trail of Tears

The Barren Rock

Westward I Go Free

What A Country

So We Die

A Continental Nation

THE WEST Empire Upon The Trails

The Heart of Everything

The Black Hills"We have maps of the past. Not a history in the way that most of us understand history, but places... we can identify with in terms of time and experience. 'Oh, yes,' my grandmother would say, 'yes, we were there, we were there in the Black Hills at one time. We know about Zoei, Devils Tower.' And she said it, you know, as if she had been there. And I think that in her mind's eye, it was, it was there and very clearly defined."
N. Scott Momaday

The arrival of the horse in the early 1700s had allowed the Kiowas to migrate eastward from the Rocky Mountains out onto the Great Plains. They claimed as their own the best winter hunting grounds, the Black Hills, and its landmarks became part of their religion. But by the early 1800s, new people had arrived from the east, challenging the Kiowas for the Black Hills. They were the Cheyenne. And behind them came the Lakota -- known by whites as the Sioux.

Richard White"The Black Hills have around them in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century this incredible swirl of people. People fighting, contesting for buffalo grounds. And the driving figures in all this are always going to be the Lakotas. The Lakotas are pushing other people out, the Lakotas are spreading west after the herds, the Lakotas are the people in motion. The Lakotas weren't always there, but they make the Black Hills the center of their world."
Richard White

Charlotte Black Elk"Our name for the Black Hills is Wahmunka Oganunka Inchante. Inchante is 'the heart of.' Wahmunka Oganunka I translate 'the heart of everything that is,' everything material, everything spiritual. It is the center of the universe.

Many Horses, Teton Lakota"We were a warrior society, and that's very much a part of our culture. We have an expression that whoever didn't fear us, hated us, and we took great pride in the fact that everyone either hated us or feared us. The Cree people in their stories would say, 'When the Crow were coming to fight, we sent our little boys to fight. When the Mandan were coming, we sent the old men. When the Sioux were coming, we painted our faces for death and prepared to die.'"
Charlotte Black Elk

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