The Putin Files

The U.S. Response to Russian Measures

As intelligence agencies warned about Russia’s intervention in the election, the Obama White House debated how to respond. While some in the administration urged strong action, Obama worried about damaging the election’s credibility. Obama confronted Putin about the interference during a meeting in China. U.S. intelligence officials issued a public warning in October, on the same day that both the “Access Hollywood” tape and the first batch of Podesta emails were released.

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