Norwegian meteorologist Jacob Bjerknes is the first to see a connection between unusually warm sea-surface temperatures in El Niño and the weak easterlies and heavy rainfall that accompany Southern Oscillation conditions. Ultimately, Bjerknes' discovery leads to the recognition that the warm waters of El Niño and the pressure seesaw of Walker's Southern Oscillation are facets of the same phenomenon, sometimes referred to by the acronym ENSO, or El Niño/Southern Oscillation.

Jacob Bjerknes

Photo: University of Washington