Speaker 1 I'm not certain whether we started working on Wrex in 1974 75, but it was around there which would have made Dick Rogers about 72 and he didn't look well. He had been through so many illnesses that he was he was just not a well man and tended not to talk that much. But and I was intimidated by the fact that this man had worked with Oscar Hammerstein and Larry Hart and he'd done a show with Stephen Sondheim, who of whom I'm in or so I thought, oh, God, I'm going to work with this man and let me see what what the easiest lyric is going to be. Something that I got to impress him. So I looked through the script by Sherman, a very poetic script, and I found a moment where Henry has married Anne Boleyn and she's presented him with a child. He, of course, has been promised a son by her foolishly and instead he gets Elizabeth. So there was a moment where and has some angry words with Henry, who's disappointed. He feels he's been lied to and he storms out and she asks the court musician, Mark Smeeton, to sing a lullaby to her daughter. And I thought, good, that's an easy one. So I wrote and I think I finished the lyric in about a day or two, but I kept going over it every day. I didn't make any changes, but I kept rewriting. I kept stalling, stalling. Finally, after a week, I thought, well, I'm not going to change this anymore. I better go up to his office and give it to. So I went to his office, I called, I made an appointment, walked in, we chatted for a while now. I gave him the lyric and he put it on his desk and he began to pore over it, frowning intensely. And he would say, why did you do this? And I would explain why I had done that. And he'd say, why did you do that? And I explained why I had done this. And I thought, he hates it. He just hates it. And so at the end of the day, he did have one suggestion, which was wonderful. He said, you know, Elizabeth is susceptible of many, many nicknames more than most. Why don't you do an introduction in which the singer says, I don't know what to call caller? Is it Betsie or Bess or or, you know? So that was wonderful. And I wrote a new intro, which I sent over, and I thought, well, I don't know if he's going to set this even, but I'll go on to the next number. So I found the next easiest lyric to write. And about four or five days later, his secretary, I think it was Rita Chambers, if I remember correctly, called and she said Mr. Rogers has some music he would like to play. I thought, oh, my. So. I went to his office and again, we chatted at this big I think it was an octagonal or I was an angled desk and and he was stalling. I didn't know this. And finally he said, well, I guess you'd like to hear the music. And I said, yes, I would. And he got up and he was limping, dragging one foot, going over to the piano. And he hesitated about halfway there. And they looked at me, said, I probably screw it up, except he didn't say screw it up. He said something stronger. And I thought, he's as nervous as I am. So he went to the piano and because of the stroke he had, he didn't play too well, but he played it. He got through it. And it was gorgeous. It was just beautiful. And this was I remember the first time when instead of saying Mr. Rogers or I didn't call him Richard Mr. Rogers the first time I said, Oh, Dick, it's beautiful. That was kind of a breakthrough in our relationship. And his shoulders slumped. And he said, oh, he said, you know, when I left the house this morning, Dorothy said, oh, I hope he likes it. And this was such a different picture of this man. And I thought, I guess it's all the illnesses he's had which has left him vulnerable. And what was so unexpected, because I expected this man who would have absolute confidence in everything he did with all his experience. And instead I just responded to it. I thought, I can work with this man. So and especially after that, it was such a beautiful beginning. So I discovered other things and the collaboration that may have had to do with his stroke while we were on the road. I was asked to write a song called Rex, a title song, and so I wrote something with a very rhapsodic introduction, very poetic, and I read it to our producers and our director and everybody who had to hear it. And everybody said, oh, that's lovely. And Roger said, Oh, that's terrific. And then it went into a song called Rex, which is like a march. And then he went to his room in the hotel where we stayed at a piano. And he kept calling me every 10 minutes. And he would say, you know, this first line where it's so free I can't find music for it, can you make it more symmetrical? And what he was doing was taking this very free poetry, this rhapsodic outpouring and making it into that that I'm that I'm that I'm that I'm that I'm that I'm that I'm that I'm. And that seemed to be the only way he could handle it was very strange. So eventually I went to his suite. He had a pianist who played the music when it was ready, and they played it for me. And I was I was very disappointed. Not that the lyric for Rex was all that good anyway. It was a lyric which they thought was important and I couldn't find a handle for it. And I was afraid that when our star Nicole Williamson sang it and it got to that point, Rex, that a Great Dane would come bounding out on stage and lick his face. At any rate, the song was used for a little while and dropped, but. That is strange to work with this, this man who had the reputation of writing so quickly, he wrote slowly at one point he played me something and it was pretty enough, but. It. At the end of the first musical phrase, it ended, it sounded like the song had ended. And by this time, I knew him well enough so that even so, I was a little anxious, I said, Mr. Rogers and those moments I didn't call them, they said, Mr. Rogers. The first musical phrase sounds like the song has ended already and we've just begun. Is it possible to to end that in such a way that it suggests you're going on going into the next phrase? And he thought and he said, sure. And so he rewrote it. But, you know, I shouldn't have had to tell him that. I think that was also a result of this stroke he'd had that he almost seemed when he wrote, he almost seemed to need anchors, markers, something where he felt secure. So the. It was almost as though he needed markers, he needed anchors so that he felt secure, the music wasn't spreading out and getting away from him, something on that order. And yet, despite that, there were some absolutely soaring melodies that he wrote, which were, I think, as as lovely as just about anything he ever wrote. We had oh, one thing that's interesting is that as we got into it, as we got to know each other and as the songs begin to come out, it was amazing to watch the transformation that happened in him physically. When he started, he was this 72 year old man, which is not that old by our current comparisons. But he was he looked every year of his 72 years, and as we worked, the years fell away. He got younger and you could see what music was to him, what the ability to compose was to him. These juices were flowing and he looked younger. He was happier. Nicole Williamson, our star, had what we thought was a good idea for a song to enact one Henry the eighth, of course, Rex is about a king who was needs a male heir. He thinks so that his heir will be able to hold the country together, keep it from flying apart into civil war. And of course, the story is that he has a daughter who has every quality he wants, but he can't recognize it until the very end of the play. At any rate, his third wife was Jane Seymour, and she gave him the son that he wanted. What he didn't know is that the son was very frail and would not live in to maturity. But Jane Seymour died in childbirth. And at the end of Act one, Nicole Williams had said, give me a song about this gift that she's given to me, this wonderful gift of a son and that I can sing by her beer. We didn't even think that's going to be a downer on stage. But we wrote the song and it was very pretty. I, I have to confess, I was in my best Hammerstein mode. I was trying to be Oscar Hammerstein and he was his kind of images. So anyway, we wrote it and Dick wrote a lovely melody with a very interesting harmonic turn in it. And I thought surely in all these years that he's been writing music, he must in some song or other, he must have used this already, but I couldn't remember it. It was very fresh to me and it was fresh to him. And anybody who came into the office, he'd say, was like a new song and like it, like a child with a new toy. He'd sit down and he could play this. And when he got to that particular turn, he'd kind of sit up. His eyes would sparkle and he was enjoying himself. Needless to say, the sight of our hero singing to his dead wife at the end of the act was neither moving nor particularly theatrical. And it got cut very fast. Sherman Yellen had a lot of poetic ideas in the script and there was one. I have no idea whether this was based on something factual that he dug up in his research. But what Sherman wrote in Act two, there's a scene which depends upon the king of France coming to England to talk to Henry as king, to King, to try and avoid the war that Henry wants to make. And as a Christmas gift, the king of France has given Henry some pear trees from Anjou. And as he tells Henry, take care of these trees. The fruit is wonderful, but it will take ten years for them to mature. So he gives them. And then the scene goes on. At the end of the play, we had a death scene which was later changed, that Nicole Williamson's request or demand. We had a death scene. And in it, Henry sang a song called The Pairs of Oju. Where he was talking about what what the subtext of the song was, is I want to taste those pears. I know that I'm dying, but I'm not going to die. I'm going to live another 10 years and I'm going to taste that fruit. And the whole song is 10 years goes by in the blink of an eye. But I've I've had a long and wonderful life because I've had several lives. I've done so many things. And he describes what he's done. And then he talks about his son who's going to take over the throne. But not yet. Not yet a while, because I want to do more of these things. And and then at the end, as you realize that he's got a chill and he is a dying man, he begins to talk about himself. But it's in terms of the trees. He's talking to his jester will and he says will wrap wrap the trees carefully. Don't don't let them freeze because in 10 years time that we're going to have that fruit. It's a wonderful song. And when Rogers had his pianist play it for us. What was so significant about the song was that it was richer and its harmonies and more. Unpredictable in its harmonies than anything else he'd written in the score, his investment in the song was so deep that one could only think he must be identifying with Henry. He's 76. He's had a laryngectomy. He's had all these conditions I've mentioned, and yet he's still working and he wants to live another 10 years. Dick Rogers, that is, and write write more his own fruit, his own pairs of Anjou so that it was as though that music was his soliloquy about how he felt at his time in life. The song, as I say, was cut because Nicole Williamson was uncomfortable with the scene. There must have been other reasons, but everything was rewritten and there was no place for the song. However, about a year ago, a man named James Morgan, who runs the York Theatre, a little theater that works out of St. Peter's Church in New York, they produce new musicals and they also do the do concert versions of songs that kind of what we call second chances. They're called musicals in Mufti's, which means no sets, no costumes. Usually music stands. And there are a chorus of of performers doing shows that didn't work. And they've discovered that they do five performances. And there's an audience that wants to see those shows by reputable writers. They think, why didn't it work? And there's bound to be music and dialogue of quality. It'd be interesting to see. So James Morgan said, I want to do Rex. And I called Sherman yell and I said, there is no point in doing it the way it was done on Broadway. We made too many mistakes and he agreed. So we rewrote it. And in October this year, yes, it was middle of October, we did our five performances and to our absolute delight, we found we had rescued the show. We pared it down considerably. We put back songs including the pairs of Anjou and some others that we we'd cut that turned out to be very useful songs. And it worked. And more people have commented about the of Asia. They said might. That's a beautiful song. And usually I tell them, well, it's because of of what Rodgers put into it that was really him just putting everything he could into it.

Speaker 2 I wonder if you could introduce this revival again for us in about one sentence, because I want it. And if you could perhaps put it in the context of it was 74, then it

Speaker 1 opened 76,

Speaker 2 76, and this was last year. So it's this is this year. This year. So it's two thousand. Mm. So twenty four years later.

Speaker 1 Right. Almost a quarter of a century.

Speaker 2 Well if you could say here we are twenty four years later and it was revived and just sort of introduce it in that way. And thank you again Rex. Yeah.

Speaker 1 Rex opened and closed in about six weeks in 1976 and was dormant after that, but about a year ago, the man who runs the York Theatre, James Morgan, asked Sherman yelling at me if they could do Rex in a series they produce a flop shows. They found there's a big audience that wants to see these in concert form. No sets, no costumes. So we decided it was it would be foolish to do the show the way it was done on Broadway. There were too many mistakes. We decided to revisit it, rewrite it. We looked at it. And after almost a quarter of a century, it was very easy to see this out. That out. Yeah, I didn't. We have a song here. Let's put that back. We rewrote it. We got very excited about it. We had our director was Jay Bender, who happens to be perhaps the best or one of the best casting directors in New York. And he turned out to be a wonderful director. It was a great experience. We had five concert performances in mid-October of the year 2000, almost 25 years after its original presentation. And this time around it worked. I wished that Rogers had been alive to see it, especially the way the pairs of eyes you worked, because everybody found that a particularly beautiful song. And although I'm not this kind of person, I can't help but feel Rogers is up there. He's looking down saying, yeah, I knew it was a good song when Sherman, Yellen and I began to revisit Rex for this production at the York. I remembered two songs that I had written, lyrics for Dick Rogers had set them, and when they were played for us, everybody felt they were sort of lifeless. They were not good songs. But I remembered the songs and I thought, I wonder if they're as as as dull as I thought they were, because if they're not, there's a dramatic use for them this time around. So I dug the songs out. One was a soliloquy for Henry where he's picking the petals off a disease called Tell Me, Daisy, does Anne Boleyn love me or not? And the other was a song where he's trying to teach the woman who became his third wife, Jane Seymour. He's trying to teach her to play the flute. But it's a seduction scene. It's called Dear Jane. So I got the songs. I looked at them. And to my surprise, I thought, the melodies are good, the harmonies are good, the lyrics are OK. What is it about the song? And then when I I'm not a pianist, but I'm a musician and I tried to play through them and I realized what was wrong because Rogers had been so ill, his energy level varied considerably and sometimes when he was writing a song, he would do an accompaniment that had vitality and others he did the minimum necessary to put the notes on the page. And that's what he had done. In the case of these two songs, they were lifeless and in fact, both of them got orchestrated and orchestrated. It was a wonderful orchestrator. Irv Costel orchestrated them the way they were on the page. He didn't invest them with the kind of vitality they needed. So I looked and I called Mary Rogers and I said, is it OK if we get somebody to do new accompaniments for these songs? I think they're usable. And she said that would be terrific. But you've got to get permission from Ted Chapman, who's the head of our now. So I called Ted as a friend and he said, that's a wonderful idea. I want you to do the accompaniments he knew. He knows that I do still write music occasionally and he likes it. So I did the accompaniments trying to keep them in the Richard Rogers mode. Every so often I would do something that I'm not sure he would have done, but I thought something to add a little more richness. And then I had to audition them for Mary, who has become the guardian of the music. And I'm told she can be very fierce if she feels somebody has taken undue liberties with the music. But she didn't remember the songs, so she didn't know what to expect and she loved them. And we put them in the show and they work. So that was a wonderful bonus.

Speaker 2 Your description of Rex and all those anecdotes are just fabulous. I thank you. I want to we're almost done. I want to do a little bit of jumping around. OK, OK.

Speaker 1 OK, Jerry Bock and I worked for about 13, 14 years. We had problems that arose with our last show, which was called the Rothschilds, and the problems were never resolved. And we have not worked together since. But I had at one time in my life, I had been in therapy and I called the therapist. I was very unhappy and I went and talked to him about these problems. And he told me a surprising thing. He said he said, you know, I've done a certain amount of research about collaboration. And he said, in my opinion, collaboration is the most complicated form of relationship that there is because the collaborators keep changing roles at times. Their composer and lyricist, at times their father and child, at times the husband and wife, at times their brothers or brother and sister, he said it keeps shifting. All I can tell you with Mr. Bach, he said, just give it air. And if it's going to iron itself out, it will. But that put collaboration in a new light with with Richard Rodgers. I always. Took the position of being the junior partner, not to downgrade my own lyrics, but I felt I owed him the respect that he had earned. We had a lot of problems with Nicole Williamson and they arose mostly from the fact that Nicole felt very uncomfortable. He really thought that he was miscast and he was in pain a great deal of the time. We thought he was wonderful, but he didn't. And so he made a lot of demands. It was it was difficult. And at one point I went to Roger's and I said, Mr. Rogers, on behalf of the world, I feel that I should apologize for you at this point in your career having to deal with this kind of craziness. And Roger said this, this is nothing. He said you never worked with Danny Kaye, so our collaboration, the only time that it was uncomfortable for me were those moments when I had to criticize Rogers, for instance, in one song, I don't remember which one it was when his pianist. No, I think he played it for me. There wasn't another person in the room and I listened to it and I thought, oh, I wonder if he hears this. There's a strain in there that's I've been working on the railroad now. When I worked with Jerry Bock, once he played me something and I said, gee, that sounds a lot like whatever it was. And Jerry laughed and he said, I don't allow myself to think of those things. I can't or wouldn't be able to write. He said somebody else has to tell me and then I'll change it. Well, I remembered this and so as delicately as I could. I said, Mr. Rogers, again, not Dick. In this circumstance, Mr. Rogers, that passage sounds very much like I've been working on the railroad. He said, sing it for me. So I sang. I've been working on the railroad. He said, Isn't that funny? I just don't hear it. Not only that, I said, I don't know that song, which was surprising. So he changed it. He was I expected resistance and he never resisted. There was a moment on the road where we wrote a new song for Penny Fuller, who was playing. She played both Anne Boleyn and she played her own daughter, Elizabeth. And this was a song for Elizabeth, which had a kind of a patter beginning a lot of words. And Roger said it. And Penny, who considers herself really an actress, who sings, not particularly a singer who acts and she's wonderful at both, but that's the way she feels. So she's psyched herself out about this patter. She said there's no place to breathe, I can't breathe. And I sang it and I could do it, but she couldn't. So I went to Rodgers again rather tentatively, and I said, Penny says there there's no place to breathe in that song. And he said, that's ridiculous. So a lot of places. But he said, well, if she can't breathe, OK, we'll rerun it. So he just sat down and he redid it. He was. Incredibly cooperative, and there was nothing about, you know, I guess I expected in some corner of my mind that he would say, Listen, kid, I've been writing songs since before you were born, so don't tell me, you know, but never, never. It was always. You think that's wrong? OK, we'll change it.

Speaker 2 Can you put yourself in his position when he had to break up with with heart and what that must have what he must have been going through inside?

Speaker 1 I really can't. OK, honey.

Speaker 2 Yes, that's OK, tell us after Rex opened whether you anticipated working with Rodgers again or not.

Speaker 1 Rex opened and closed in about six weeks, as I used to tell people we might have run seven, but there was a blizzard. And. I kept up my acquaintance with with Rogers, I wasn't sure that I wanted to work with him again only because because of his stroke, because of his physical difficulties, it was very difficult. And yet if he'd come up with a project that excited me, I think I would have in many ways, I wish that the project we'd been given had not been Rex, because Henry the Eighth is a very problematic figure to make the hero of a show. As a matter of fact, our opening performance in Wilmington, Nicole Williamson, came back after the performance and said, they hate me out there. And I said, Yeah, you're Henry the eighth. He said, but they can't hate me. I'm the lead. And the protagonist, he said, If you want to make the show, call the show Elizabeth or Ann or Catherine, then I'll be as mean as you want. But it's about me. You've got to show them. Let them understand me. And this time around at the Arc Theatre, I think finally we hit that balance. But at any rate, I've lost my train of thought. Where was I? What was the question again, you said you wondered why you wish the project had been. Oh, I wished

Speaker 2 the question was whether you hesitated working with them again.

Speaker 1 When we finished, Rex. I was filled with questions about the project, it had been an uncomfortable experience. There was a lot of anger. We were all angry, angry, angry at each other, except I was not angry at Rogers. I wished that the project we've been given to work on had been more traditionally musical comedy so that we could have written those kind of songs. But it wasn't. At any rate, the next show he chose to do, if I remember correctly, was I remember Mama and I read the material and for one reason or another I couldn't see it as a musical. What may have been operating also is the difficulties that I had because of his illnesses. Whatever the reason, I turned it down and he went ahead and did it and he wrote some some lovely things for it.

Speaker 2 You know that we've been looking for Richard Rodgers here. And I think that you've helped us illuminate him a lot. When it comes right down to it, who is he?

Speaker 1 Richard Rodgers. To me, I think is like. Any genius, and I don't use that word lightly. It's like any genius. Who is aware of his own genius and who is aware of what he has to give the world and he will give the world that material, and sometimes the people in his life will suffer because of it, because the music is more important than anything else. Not to say he was a monster, but the music took precedence. And I think this is you know, it's true of people like Beethoven, and that's not a light comparison. There was an evening Maureen McGovern did, and then also Kathy Sullivan. They did evenings recently of the work of Richard Rodgers. And when I listened in one of them I can't remember that was Maureen's or Katey's. The overture was just one song after another, about four bars, and all he needed was four bars. And you recognize the song. And they went on and on and on. And the scope and the variety were staggering. And I thought, I wonder when I worked with him if I really appreciated him as much as he deserved to be appreciated. He was a genius. And I think that was Richard Rodgers.

Speaker 2 Fantastic. Can you introduce that for short run? Let's let's change. What I'd like you to do is I'd rather not hear

Speaker 1 in the last few months, I went to a cabaret because there was an evening of Richard Rodgers being done and the overture, played by the pianist, consisted of two or four bar phrases, one after the other. And that's all you needed to identify a Richard Rodgers song. And it went on and on and on. And I was just marveling at the scope and the variety of these songs, the number of hits or even songs that may not have been hits, but those of us who loved musicals, we knew the songs there were just endless. And I asked myself whether when I worked with them, whether I really gave him the respect and the appreciation that he deserved because he was a genius.

Speaker 2 Talk about the particular way Rogers wrote. What made him, Richard Rodgers, this genius that you've been telling us about, what was it about him that could take a lyric and make us go to heaven with it? And if you can have a few bars or whatever you could to demonstrate something, that would be great. But what is it about him that makes him Rodgers?

Speaker 1 I spoke to a lot of people about Richard Rodgers and trying to identify what makes a Rodgers song, a Rodgers song. There are various reasons, but one of the things he wrote, songs, melodies that were on the whole simple. And yet in one way or another, there would always be something unexpected, something fresh. That is an extraordinary talent. One composer I spoke to said he would go to the wrong note, but he would harmonize it in such a way that that it was completely logical. But that was something that only he would do. And you didn't expect that note in. There's a song in Wreck's away from you. And when it gets to the middle section, the harmonies keep shifting. It's like a kaleidoscope of harmonies. And at one point, I don't know if it's going to sound like this when I sing it, but it goes to a note which is unresolved. It just floats. And you wait for the next the next passage, because only then will the melody have have achieved a kind of resolution. It was de de de de de de de de de de de de de de de de. It's that note. It's an odd note. But it was and it was a an unresolved harmony. And to me that was typical. Richard Rodgers unexpected. And yet once you heard it, it couldn't have been more logical.

Speaker 2 I've read innumerable times that he's so American. And can you help us understand that and tell us about being American?

Speaker 1 Rogers once told me that his guard was Jerome Kern. And as a young man, Rogers would go to see the the Princess Theatre shows where Kern and Woodhouse and somebody else, Guy Bolton, where they kind of changed the direction of musicals because our musical theater grew out of the European operettas, which were very popular at the turn of the century. And then George M. Cohan and a couple of others began to introduce. Stuff that was stuff I'm I'm a lyricist. They began to introduce jazz or stuff or or the kind of music that was popular music. I say stuff because it wasn't really jazz, but it had that kind of perkiness that we associate with early American ragtime, that kind of music. And Kurn. Managed to blend the two, he had the long sweeping melodies, the soaring melodies that owed their inspiration to the operettas, and at the same time he could also write these ragged things, these jazzy kind of songs. And Rodgers took it from there so that there was a perkiness and also when when he needed to. Rodgers King and I particularly could write those operetta type melodies, but especially when he wrote With Heart, there was a perkiness, no doubt supported by the fact that Hart was a master of contemporary slang and knew when to use it so that it wasn't banal, but it was fresh and it was salt and pepper and did something to spice up the lyrics.

Speaker 2 Go with from take it from there, he could take it from there and tell me about the American nature of that.

Speaker 1 It's difficult to define why Richard Rodgers and not just Rodgers, but some of the other his contemporaries, Gershwin, were so American, you think that from the top

Speaker 2 here euphonious worth could be quickly Emmett Till, somebody his. Buzzing Not fun to watch. Oh, yeah, somebody watch went beat because it's 11 o'clock.

Speaker 1 Oh, OK. I don't think it's mine

Speaker 2 where I was I was saying about how difficult. Right. And just leave it leave it with Rogers.

Speaker 1 OK, it's difficult to define why Rogers music might be described as American and sound. Probably the reason is that it reflects the popular music that he was hearing when he was growing up. He was exposed to that. There was a lot of freshness. American music was changing, was finding its way, and he was able to incorporate these. I'll use the word my my mother used the word used in the 20s, Peppi. He would write these peppy melodies and syncopated melodies are as and even. Much of the time, the sweeping melodies would be short breaths. He could write the longer melodies and he did, but a lot of them were more concise. And I think that was something American as opposed to the European tradition of of spinning out these these melodies.

Speaker 2 In conclusion, you've had a wonderful and illustrious career and. I wonder if you've thought about legacy. You obviously still have a long way to go, but could you talk about legacy and what might the legacy of Richard Rodgers be?

Speaker 1 I'm at an age where I think very carefully about what shows I will commit to because I can't help but feel that each one may be my last, except that by God, I'm going to taste those pairs of eyes who are 10 years down the road. But one does think of legacy. That's one of the reasons why I'm so delighted that we've taken Rex, which was a dormant show and created into a show which people will enjoy. The Rodgers legacy is all of those wonderful melodies, which I think will last and last and last because they're all so well constructed and so they remain so freshly conceived that they are capable of being orchestrated, redone in whatever the popular style of the day is. They will always be quality songs. He has an enormous legacy, his legacy, his theatrical legacy. That's always difficult to predict. It's difficult to predict 30, 40 years from now what people will find entertaining. One hopes that shows like Carousel, the King and I and his better shows will be part of the American theater literature.

Sheldon Harnick
Interview Date:
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"Sheldon Harnick, Richard Rodgers: The Sweetest Sounds." American Masters Digital Archive (WNET). 28 Nov. 2000,
(2000, November 28). Sheldon Harnick, Richard Rodgers: The Sweetest Sounds. [Video]. American Masters Digital Archive (WNET).
"Sheldon Harnick, Richard Rodgers: The Sweetest Sounds." American Masters Digital Archive (WNET). November 28, 2000. Accessed June 29, 2022


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