The worst terrorist incidents in Turkey’s history took place during a single week in November 2003, during which 63 people were killed and 600 wounded. The four car bombings responsible for the carnage targeted two synagogues, the British-based HSBC bank, and the British consulate. Though the attacks were soon attributed to a local cell of al Qaeda and a slew of suspects were arrested, another suicide bombing at a Masonic lodge in March 2004, renewed fears of further violence by Turkish Islamic militants. In May 2004, 69 suspects were charged in connection with the series of car bombings that took place in November. Beginning in 1996, the Kurdistan Worker’s Party (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan, or PKK) began using suicide attacks in its efforts to create an independent Kurdish state. Since 1999, at the behest of the PKK’s captured leader, Abdullah Ocalan, the organization has ceased using violence.