Recommended Research Resources
The American Civil War
Timeline of war from 1861 (Firing at Ft. Sumter) to
1865 (General Lee’s surrender) with links to major
battles. Includes many of the officers’ official
The American Civil War: Archives and Articles
Includes speeches, letters, and reports of Abraham Lincoln,
Jefferson Davis, Ulysses Grant and other military leaders
as well as some campaign summaries.
The Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System
A computerized database containing very basic facts
about servicemen who served on both sides during the
Civil War. The initial focus of the CWSS is the Names
Index Project, a project to enter names and other basic
information from 5.4 million soldier records in the
Civil War Potpourri
Contains 92 articles on Civil War. Topics include causes,
battles, compromises, slavery, diplomacy and roles of
women and youth.
Facts About Different States in the Civil War
Index includes Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California,
Connecticut, Dakota Territory, Delaware, Florida, Georgia,
Illinois, Indiana Territory, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas,
Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Maryland,
Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska,
Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York,
North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina,
Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, D.
C., West Virginia, Wisconsin.
The Official Records of the War of the Rebellion
Access to 128 volumes of the Official Records of Union
and Confederate Armies. Also provides links to biographies
of Civil War leaders, essays, letters, and diaries.
Researching People of the Civil War Era
Guidelines for genealogical research. Links to National
Archives and state archives. Directions for ordering
military and pension records for Union Civil War Veterans
from the National Archives.
State Archives Referral List
Addresses, phone numbers, and links to official archives
of all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the U. S. Virgin
State Historic Preservation Offices
Addresses, phone numbers, e-mail addresses, and Web
sites of State Historic Preservation Offices in all
U. S. states and territories.
U. S. Civil War Center, Louisiana State University
Contains over 8,000 links to Civil War articles, records,
and documents. Index (http://www.cwc.lsu.edu/cwc/civlink.htm)
includes abolition and slavery, battles, casualties,
causes, draft, espionage, genealogy, geography, government
and political science, homefront, medicine, and writers
and literature of the period.
The Civil War Along the Coast
Focuses on battles in North Carolina and South Carolina.
Civil War Battle Summaries by Campaign
Battles classified by year and region: Main Eastern
Theater, Lower Seaboard Theater and Gulf Approach, Main
Western Theater, Trans-Mississippi Theater, and Pacific
Coast Theater. Describes battles and identifies commanders,
forces engaged, estimated casualties, and result.
Civil War Battle Summaries by State
Summarizes battles in Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Washington,
D. C, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky,
Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri,
New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma,
Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia,
and West Virginia.
Civil War Battles by States
Enter name of state and find maps of Civil War battles
which occurred there.
Civil War Related Sites in the National Park Service
Lists 47 national battlefields and military parks along
with descriptions of battles which took place there.
The End of the Civil War
Excerpt from Reminiscences of the Civil War by Maj.
Gen. John B. Gordon, CS, which describes the surrender
at Appomattox. Article reveals the ragged condition
of Confederate troops, emotions of the day, and the
civility of Union commanders toward their Confederate
Historic Places 1: Battlefields
Index to articles on Civil War battlefields in Florida,
Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, Mississippi,
North Carolina, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania,
Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia.
Official Records of the War of the Rebellion
Commanders’ reports of major battles. Also describes
courts martial of Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter after the
Battle of Second Manassas and Henry Wirz, Commandant
of Andersonville, in Washington, D. C.
Timeline, the Civil War, 1861-1965
Timeline includes major battles as well as related political
and military events.
Caring for the Wounded/Medicine
Caring for Casualties of the Civil War http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/69bentonville/69bentonville.htm
Describes changes in caring for the Civil War wounded
between the First Battle of Manassas (July, 1861) and
the Battle of Bentonville, N. C. (March, 1865) due to
implementation of the Letterman Plan formed by Dr. Jonathan
Letterman, Medical Director of the Union’s Army
of the Potomac.
Caring for the Men – The History of Civil
War Medicine http://www.civilwarhome.com/medicinehistory.htm
Comprehensive article on development of medical corps
in both the Union and Confederacy. Statistics on Union
hospitals and patients. Describes the role of Dorthea
Dix and volunteers.
Civil War Hospitals
Identifies 155 Civil War hospitals, their location,
bed capacity, and surgeon in charge.
Civil War Era Women Physicians
Succinct article on Dr. Mary Edwards Walker and Dr.
Esther Hill Hawks.
Civil War Medicine
Links to articles on Civil War medicine, hospitals,
hospital ships, nurses, and surgeons.
Famous Nurses of the Civil War
Briefly discusses work of five nurses , including Mary
Todd Lincoln, Dorthea Dix, and Clara Barton.
Ladies’ Union Aid Society
Describes the role of women volunteers in founding the
Western Sanitary Commission, creating hospital ships,
and caring for the wounded in battlefield and prison
Medical Directors’ Reports from the Official
Records of the War of the Rebellion http://civilwarhome.com/medicaldirectors.htm
Reports from head of the Medical Department of the Army
of the Potomac, including those filed after the Peninsular,
Virginia, Campaigns and Battle of Gettysburg.
U. S. Sanitary Commission
Describes formation and activities of the Commission,
which had branches in 2,500 communities. Includes reports
on Battles of Shiloh, Antietam, Olustee, Vicksburg,
Gettysburg, Chickamauga, and Chancellorsville.
American Civil War Battle Statistics: Commanders
and Casualties http://www.americancivilwar.com/cwstats.html
Provides number of Union and Confederate casualties
in 29 major battles.
American War Deaths
Compares Civil War deaths with those of other American
conflicts from the American Revolution to the Gulf War.
Also estimates costs of wars.
Deaths of Union Forces, by State, 1861-1865
Lists number of union troops who were killed in action
or died of other causes in each state.
Losses in the Battles of the Civil War and What
Article by Col. Hilary A. Herbert, 8th Alabama Infantry,
CSA, and U. S. Secretary of the Navy, which compares
the endurance of Union and Confederate soldiers in specific
battles to that of soldiers in foreign conflicts, such
as the Battle of Waterloo.
The Price in Blood! Casualties in the Civil War
Identifies ten costliest battles of the war. Provides
statistics for battlefield deaths as well as deaths
due to disease, accidents, and other causes.
Statistical Summary, America’s Major Wars
Shows the percentage of the population who participated
in all American wars and the casualty rates.
Discusses law, age requirements, exemptions, and provision
for substitutes. Link to Union Draft (http://www.members.tripod.com/beag27/usdraft.html).
Describes requirements, exemptions, and problem of "bounty
Conscientious Objectors in the Civil War http://www.civilwarhome.com/conscientiousobjectors.htm
Relates efforts by both the Union and the Confederacy
to accommodate pacifist religious groups.
Conscription (Military Draft) in the Civil War
Describes opposition to draft laws in both the Union
and the Confederacy.
New York Draft Riots (July 11-13, 1863)
News of the Battle of Gettysburg and perceived inequities
in the draft led to mob violence following Lincoln’s
Enrollment Act of Conscription issued on March 3, 1863.
Article describes riots in New York City and provides
links to reports taken from the Official Record of the
War of the Rebellion.
The American Question Abroad in the Civil War (Part
Summary of British attitudes toward the U. S. Civil
War and Union and Confederate efforts to enlist British
British Opinions and Responses to the American Civil
Articles on divided British opinion, effects of the
Emancipation Proclamation and Trent Affair, and possible
consequences of a British war with the U. S.
The Trent Affair
Article from the Washington Evening Star relates story
of Confederate diplomats traveling aboard a British
vessel who were seized by Union officials.
Short description of Pinkerton, his work as head of
the American Secret Service during the Civil War, and
his post-war activities.
Civil War Spies: Good Intelligence Knows No Gender
Humorous article about activities of Confederate spy
Belle Boyd ("La Belle Rebelle") and Union
spy Elizabeth VanLew.
Spying in the Civil War
Describes ease with which both Union and Confederate
spies obtained information, including "secret"
plans published in newspapers.
Geography and Strategic Importance of the Valley
Five-part article discusses military action in the Shenandoah
Valley and its importance to Lee’s Maryland campaign,
Gettysburg, and Early’s invasion of Washington,
West Point Civil War Atlas www.dean.usma.edu/history/dhistorymaps/AcivilwarPages/ACWToC.htm
Easy to read color maps of 58 Civil War battlefields
Civil War 1861-65
Lengthy article about both Union and Confederate women’s
participation in the war.
Civil War: the Wisconsin Homefront http://wisconsinstories.org/2001season/civilwar/temmer_essay.html#top
Describes activities of Women’s Soldiers Aid Society
and women’s contributions to work force during
Civil War Women (online archival collections, Duke University)
Papers of Rose O’Neal Greenhow, spy for the CSA
born in Montgomery County, Md.; Alice Williamson, schoolgirl
whose diary describes Union occupation of Gallatin,
Tenn., Feb.—Sept., 1864; and Sarah E. Thompson,
who worked with her husband to organize Union sympathizers
in Tennessee and later became a spy.
Civil War Women: Primary Sources on the Internet.
Diaries, letters, documents, and photographs of women
during the war. Many were witnesses to battles and other
war-related events in Georgia, Maryland, Missouri, Pennsylvania,
Tennessee, and South Carolina.
Journal of Jane Howison Beale
The writer lived in Fredericksburg, Va., a city which
changed hands many times during the war.
Letters and Diaries
Collection of letters, journals, and diaries of soldiers
who fought in Washington, D. C., Tennessee, Virginia,
Pennsylvania, and Mississippi. The Follett Collection
contains letters of three brothers who served in the
Union army and reveals the impact of the war on their
family in Illinois. The Hackworth Collection provides
a glimpse of life in Northern Alabama before, during,
and after the war.
Participants: African Americans
African American Civil War History in the National
Park System. http://www.itd.nps.gov/cwss/history/aa_cw_parks.htm
Links to 14 sites associated with African American history
during the Civil War, including Andersonville National
Historic Site, Ga., Antietam National Battlefield, Md.,
Fort Scott National Monument, S. C., Fredericksburg
and Spotsylvania National Military Park, Va., Gettysburg
National Military Park, Pa., Petersburg National Battlefield,
Va., and Vicksburg National Military Park, Miss. Links
to Medal of Honor Winners, Military History, and Sailors’
African American Medal
of Honor Winners
Profiles of five Medal of Honor Winners from Virginia,
Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Ohio. All saw action at
Fort Harrison, Va.
A Historical Overview of African Americans and the
Speech by Dr. Martha S. Putney provides statistics on
number of African American troops in Civil War battles
and skirmishes and casualties. Describes early prohibitions
against using African Americans in national army and
state militias and special status of Louisiana Battalion
of Free Men of Color.
Statistics on African Americans who served on 700 naval
vessels, including the Mississippi Squadron. Sailors
database is derived from enlistment records and muster
rolls of Navy vessels. Can search by name or by city
and state. Provides personal information and data on
Participants: Civilian and Military Leaders
Civil War Biographies
Links to biographies of major civilian and military
participants, Union and Confederate.
Many links to genealogical sources, some by state or
family names with civil war ancestors. Includes genealogy
"how to" guide.
Northern Leaders of the Civil War
One page biographies of Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses Grant,
Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman and other Union generals. Includes
Southern Leaders of the American Civil War
Short biographies of Jefferson Davis, Gen. Robert E.
Lee, and other Confederate generals. Provides photos.
Participants: Ethnic Groups/Immigrants
Articles on various ethnic groups which served in the
Civil War, including American Indians, Finns, Chinese,
Hispanics, Italians, Jews, Hungarians, Poles, and Scots.
Describes Irish, French, German, and Scandinavian regiments,
including the 15th Wisconsin Volunteers, also known
as the Scandinavian Regiment.
Union and Confederate Indians in the Civil War
Identifies affiliation and military contributions of
Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole tribes.
Civil War Soldiers and Units Information
Index of over 50 articles on Civil War generals, soldiers,
and women in uniform.
Links to information on regiments by state.
Can search regiments to get full description of military
action and list of all soldiers in regiment.
Biographical information on 5,000,000 Civil War soldiers
for which records are available. Chart "Current
Soldier Record Status" (www.itd.nps.gov/cwss/status/allstates.htm)
shows number of Union and Confederate records currently
available for each state. (Confederate records for some
states are not yet available.) Search soldier by name
and state of origin to find function and regiment.
Library of Congress – Selected Civil War Photographs
Contains 1,118 photographs, most made under the supervision
of Matthew Brady. Can search by keyword, browse subject
index, or use timeline.
Records from two Civil War prisons: Ft. McHenry,
Md., and Andersonville, Ga. http://www.itd.nps.gov/cwss/prisoners.htm.
A Union prison, Ft. McHenry detained Union deserters,
confederate prisoners, and political prisoners, including
members of the Md. legislature and mayor of Baltimore.
Andersonville, or Camp Sumter, confined 45,000 union
soldiers; 30 percent died from disease and other causes.
The Andersonville National Historic Site also serves
as a memorial to all American prisoners of war throughout
U. S. history. Site provides access to records of individual
prisoners at both camps. Link to map of 16 Civil War
prison camps. (http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/11andersonville/11locate1.htm)
The Spanish Civil War and the Abraham Lincoln Brigade
Succinct article on causes and course of Spanish Civil
War (1936—1939) and role of American Lincoln Brigade.
The World at War
Lists current conflicts around the world. Provides maps
and summaries of each war.